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Egipatska faraonska grobnica elitne porodice i bezbroj pronađenih artefakata!


Veliki arheološki nalazi u Egiptu i dalje se otkrivaju, a ovaj uključuje čitavu elitnu porodičnu grobnicu. Arheolozi su pronašli novu staroegipatsku faraonsku grobnicu, koja pripada važnom kraljevskom dužnosniku, staru otprilike 2.500 godina. Nedavno otkrivena egipatska faraonska grobnica uključuje grobove članova porodice i niz važnih pogrebnih umjetnina i grobnih predmeta.

Tim egipatskih arheologa došao je do izuzetnog otkrića tokom iskopavanja lokaliteta na području antikviteta al-Ghuraifah u centralnom Egiptu. Ovo je njihova četvrta sezona kopanja na tom području, koje je nekad bilo nekropola, a danas je poznato kao Tuna el-Gebel. Na lokaciji su već napravili nekoliko važnih nalaza, uključujući krečnjački lijes velikog svećenika Djehutyja, egipatskog boga Mjeseca i mudrosti. Nedavno otkriće egipatske faraonske grobnice u Tuna el-Gebelu jedno je od najvažnijih nalaza u Egiptu ove godine, jer tu grobnicu nisu opljačkali, za razliku od mnogih nalaza iz prošlosti.

Samo mali izbor artefakata i grobnih predmeta pronađenih nedavno u Egiptu. ( Ministarstvo turizma i starina )

Egipatska faraonska grobnica faraonovog blagajnika

Mostafa Waziri, generalni sekretar egipatskog Vrhovnog vijeća za starine, rekao je za Albawaba.com da je tim pronašao grobno područje koje se "sastoji od 10 metara dubokog grobnog bunara koji vodi do velike prostorije s nišama uklesanim u stijenu". Bunar ili okno obloženi su kamenim blokovima pravilnog oblika. Egipatsko ministarstvo turizma i antikviteta objavilo je u postu na Facebooku da su stručnjaci pronašli "grobnicu nadzornika kraljevske riznice, 'Badi Eset'". Njegovo ime je u nekim izvorima napisano i kao Badi Est ili Pa Di Eset.

  • Egipatski elitni sarkofazi i jedinstveno zlatno blago otkriveni
  • Grobnica Kairesa, "Čuvara tajne" i faraonova "Jedinog prijatelja", otkrili u Egiptu
  • Učiniti da bakar izgleda kao zlato: 1400 godina stari Moche grobovi otkrivaju bogate artefakte drevne elite

Kao nadzornik kraljevske riznice, Badi Eset bi u to vrijeme bio jedan od najmoćnijih ljudi u Egiptu, s ogromnim utjecajem u kraljevskom društvu. U osnovi, Badi Eset bi bio zadužen za lično bogatstvo faraona. Njegove odgovornosti uključivale bi čuvanje riznice i održavanje faraonovog domaćinstva i palata.

Kip Apisovog teleta, svetog bika, koji se štovao u Memfisu, pronađen je u egipatskoj faraonskoj grobnici. ( Ministarstvo turizma i starina )

Egipatska faraonska grobnica Badija Eseta bila je puna grobnih potrepština

Drevna faraonska grobnica datirana je u kasni period egipatske historije, a to je doba od 26. th do 30 th dinastija. U grobnici su pronađene i dvije lijepe statue od krečnjaka. Jedan je u obliku teleta Apisa, svetog bika, kojeg su obožavali u Memfisu. Druga statua je žena, vjerovatno boginja. Brojke su u izvanrednom stanju očuvanosti.

"Pronađena je i kanopska posuda, izrađena od alabastera u obliku četiri Horusova sina", navodi egipatski Independent. Ovo je zapečaćena staklenka koja je obično sadržavala utrobe pokojnika. Na Facebook stranici Ministarstva turizma i starina citirano je da je Wazari rekao da su tegle od kamena, izrađene od vapnenca, "neke od najljepših pronađenih staklenki". To su bile pogrebne figurice i sahranjene su sa mrtvima kako bi mogle djelovati kao sluge u zagrobnom životu.

Grobnica je također sadržavala gotovo 1000 Ushabti figurica izrađenih od keramike zastakljene limom. Neki amuleti, uključujući mnoge skarabeje, također su iskopani u grobnici, za koje se vjeruje da su korišteni za pomoć pokojnicima u zagrobnom životu. U grobnici Badi Eset pronađen je i niz posuda od keramike, vjerovatno kuhinjskog pribora.

Grobnica nadzornika kraljevske riznice takođe je sadržavala sarkofage članova porodice Badi Eset.

Porodični kameni sarkofazi pronađeni u egipatskoj faraonskoj grobnici

Facebook stranica Ministarstva turizma i starina izvještava da su “također pronađena 4 kamena sarkofaga” u egipatskoj faraonskoj grobnici. Svi su netaknuti i još uvijek zapečaćeni malterom. Ovo je uzbudljivo otkriće i može ukazivati ​​na to da još netaknutih ukopa čeka otkrivanje.

Otkriće grobnice Badi Eseta i sarkofaga njegove porodice jedinstvena je prilika za istraživače da razumiju pogrebne običaje Egipta u kasnom periodu i oni mogu pružiti uvid u elitne društvene odnose u ovom periodu. Prema Facebook stranici Ministarstva turizma i antike "ima još mnogo toga za otkriti i blaga za otkrivanje u El-Ghorefi". Iskopavanja se nastavljaju na lokalitetu.


Opcije stranice

U egipatskom mitu magija (heka) bila je jedna od sila koju je stvoritelj upotrijebio za stvaranje svijeta. Putem heke, simbolične radnje mogle bi imati praktične učinke. Smatralo se da sva božanstva i ljudi u određenoj mjeri posjeduju ovu silu, ali postojala su pravila o tome zašto i kako se može koristiti.

Najcjenjeniji korisnici magije bili su svećenici lektori.

Svećenici su bili glavni praktičari magije u faraonskom Egiptu, gdje su ih smatrali čuvarima tajnog znanja koje su bogovi dali čovječanstvu kako bi "spriječili udare sudbine". Najcjenjeniji korisnici magije bili su svećenici lektori koji su mogli čitati drevne magijske knjige koje se čuvaju u hramskim i dvorskim bibliotekama. U popularnim pričama takvim ljudima se pripisuje moć oživljavanja voštanih životinja ili vraćanje vode jezera.

Kip Sekhmeta © Pravi svećenici lektori izvodili su magijske rituale kako bi zaštitili svog kralja i pomogli mrtvima pri ponovnom rođenju. Čini se da su do prvog milenijuma prije nove ere njihovu ulogu preuzeli magovi (hekau). Ljekovita magija bila je specijalnost svećenika koji su služili Sekhmetu, zastrašujućoj božici kuge.

Niži status imali su čarobnjaci škorpiona, koji su pomoću magije oslobodili područje otrovnih gmazova i insekata. Babice i medicinske sestre također su uključivale magiju među svoje vještine, a mudre žene bi se mogle posavjetovati o tome koji duh ili božanstvo uzrokuje nevolje nekoj osobi.

Amajlije su bile još jedan izvor čarobne moći, koju su mogli dobiti „zaštitnici“, koji su mogli biti muški ili ženski. Nijedna od ovih upotreba magije nije bila odbijena - ni od strane države ni svećenstva. Samo su stranci redovno optuživani za upotrebu zle magije. Tek u rimsko doba postoji mnogo dokaza da su pojedini mađioničari radi financijske nagrade vježbali štetnu magiju.


Sadržaj

Iako u Egiptu nije bilo sačuvanih spisa iz preddinastičkog perioda (oko 6000. - oko 3150. pne.), Naučnici vjeruju da je važnost fizičkog tijela i njegovo očuvanje nastalo tamo. Ovo vjerovatno objašnjava zašto ljudi tog vremena nisu slijedili uobičajenu praksu kremiranja, već su sahranjivali mrtve. Neki također vjeruju da su se možda bojali da će tijela ponovo ustati ako se nakon smrti zlostavljaju. [3]

Rana tijela sahranjena su u jednostavne, plitke ovalne jame, s nekoliko grobnih potrepština. Ponekad je više ljudi i životinja bilo smješteno u isti grob. Vremenom su grobnice postale složenije. U jednom trenutku tijela su stavljena u pletenu korpu, ali su na kraju tijela stavljena u drvene ili terakotne kovčege. Najnovije grobnice koje su Egipćani napravili bili su sarkofazi. Ti su grobovi sadržavali grobnu robu poput nakita, hrane, igara i naoštrene udlage. [4]

Između preddinastičkog perioda i dinastije Ptolomeja postojao je stalni fokus na vječni život i izvjesnost ličnog postojanja izvan smrti. Ovo vjerovanje u zagrobni život ogleda se u sahranjivanju grobnih dobara u grobnicama. Vjerovanja Egipćana u zagrobni život postala su poznata u cijelom drevnom svijetu putem trgovine i kulturnog prijenosa koji je utjecao na druge civilizacije i religije. Posebno je ovo vjerovanje postalo poznato putem Puta svile. Vjerovalo se da su pojedinci primljeni u zagrobni život na osnovu sposobnosti da tamo služe svrsi. Na primjer, vjerovalo se da je faraon pušten u zagrobni život zbog svoje uloge vladara Starog Egipta, što bi bila svrha pretočena u njegov zagrobni život.

Ljudska žrtvovanja pronađena u prvim kraljevskim grobnicama pojačavaju ideju da služe svrsi u zagrobnom životu. Oni koji su žrtvovani vjerovatno su trebali služiti faraonu u njegovom zagrobnom životu. Na kraju, figurice i zidne slike počinju zamjenjivati ​​ljudske žrtve. [5] Neke od ovih figurica možda su stvorene da liče na određene ljude, pa su mogle slijediti faraona nakon što im je život okončan.

Ne samo da su se niže klase oslanjale na faraonovu naklonost, već i plemićke klase. Vjerovali su da je, kad je umro, faraon postao neka vrsta boga koji je pojedinim pojedincima mogao podariti sposobnost da imaju zagrobni život. Ovo vjerovanje postojalo je od preddinastičkog razdoblja do Starog kraljevstva.

Iako su mnoge čarolije iz prethodnih tekstova prenesene, novi tekstovi o lijesovima također su dodali nove nove čarolije, uz male izmjene kako bi se ovaj novi pogrebni tekst učinio relativnijim za plemstvo. [6] U prvom srednjem periodu, međutim, važnost faraona je opala. Pogrebni tekstovi, prethodno ograničeni na kraljevsku upotrebu, postali su šire dostupni. Faraon više nije bio bog-kralj u smislu da je samo njemu bilo dopušteno u sljedećem životu zbog svog statusa ovdje, sada je on bio samo vladar stanovništva koje će nakon njegove smrti biti izravnano prema ravnini smrtnika . [7]

Prapovijest, najraniji ukopi Uređivanje

Prvi sahrane u Egiptu poznati su iz sela Omari i Maadi na sjeveru, u blizini današnjeg Kaira. Ljudi iz ovih sela sahranjivali su svoje mrtve u jednostavnom, okruglom grobu sa loncem. Tijelo nije niti tretirano niti uređeno na poseban način koji bi se kasnije u historijskom periodu promijenio. Bez ikakvih pisanih dokaza, malo se može dati informacija o savremenim vjerovanjima o zagrobnom životu, osim redovnog uključivanja jednog lonca u grob. S obzirom na kasnije običaje, lonac je vjerovatno trebao biti hrana za pokojnike. [8]

Predinastičko razdoblje, razvoj carine Uredi

Pogrebni običaji su se razvili tokom predinastičkog perioda iz onih iz praistorijskog perioda. U početku su ljudi iskopavali okrugle grobove sa jednim loncem u razdoblju Badarija (4400–3800 godina prije nove ere), nastavljajući tradiciju kulture Omari i Maadi. Do kraja predinastičkog razdoblja, bio je sve veći broj predmeta deponiranih s tijelom u pravokutnim grobovima, a sve je više dokaza o ritualima koje su prakticirali Egipćani iz razdoblja Naqada II (3650–3300 pne). U ovom trenutku tijela su bila redovno raspoređena u sagnutom ili fetalnom položaju s licem prema istoku prema izlazećem suncu ili prema zapadu (što je u ovom historijskom periodu bila zemlja mrtvih). Umetnici su oslikavali tegle sa pogrebnim povorkama i možda ritualnim plesom. Pojavile su se i figure golih grudi sa ptičjim licem i nogama skrivenim ispod suknji. Neki su grobovi bili bogatiji robom od drugih, što pokazuje početke društvene stratifikacije. Rodne razlike u ukopima pojavile su se uključivanjem oružja u muške grobove i kozmetičkih paleta u ženske grobove. [9]

Do 3.600 godina prije nove ere, Egipćani su počeli mumificirati mrtve, umotavajući ih u platnene zavoje uljem za balzamiranje (smolom četinara i aromatičnim biljnim ekstraktima). [10] [11]

Rano dinastičko razdoblje, uređivanje grobnica i kovčega

Do Prve dinastije, neki su Egipćani bili dovoljno bogati da grade grobove nad svojim ukopima, umjesto da stavljaju svoja tijela u jednostavne grobnice iskopane u pijesak. U tom periodu nastala je pravokutna grobnica od blata od opeke sa podzemnom grobnicom nazvana mastaba. Ove grobnice imale su zidove sa nišama, stil gradnje koji se naziva motiv fasade palače jer su zidovi imitirali one koji okružuju kraljevu palaču. Budući da su obični ljudi, ali i kraljevi, imali takve grobnice, arhitektura sugerira da su neki bogati ljudi u smrti ipak postigli uzvišeni status. Kasnije u istorijskom periodu, izvjesno je da je pokojnik bio povezan s bogom mrtvih, Ozirisom.

Grobna roba proširila se na namještaj, nakit i igre, kao i na oružje, kozmetičke palete i zalihe hrane u ukrašenim staklenkama poznatim ranije, u predinastičkom razdoblju. Međutim, sada, u najbogatijim grobnicama, grobna dobra broje se u hiljadama. Samo su novoizmišljeni kovčezi za tijelo napravljeni posebno za grobnicu. Postoje i neki neuvjerljivi dokazi o mumifikaciji. Drugi predmeti u grobnicama koji su se koristili tokom svakodnevnog života ukazuju na to da su Egipćani već u Prvoj dinastiji očekivali potrebu u sljedećem životu. Dalji kontinuitet od ovog do sljedećeg života može se pronaći u postavljanju grobnica: one osobe koje su služile kralju za života izabrale su sahrane bliske svom gospodaru. Upotreba stele ispred grobnice započela je u prvoj dinastiji, što je ukazivalo na želju da se grobnica individualizira imenom pokojnika. [12]

Staro kraljevstvo, piramide i mumifikacija Uređivanje

U Starom kraljevstvu kraljevi su prvo gradili piramide za svoje grobnice okružene kamenim mastaba grobnicama za svoje visoke službenike. Činjenica da su većina visokih zvaničnika bili i kraljevski rođaci ukazuje na još jednu motivaciju za takvo postavljanje: ovi kompleksi su takođe bili porodična groblja.

Među elitom, tijela su bila mumificirana, umotana u platnene zavoje, ponekad prekrivene oblikovanim gipsom, i stavljena u kamene sarkofage ili obične drvene kovčege. Krajem Starog kraljevstva pojavile su se i maske mumija u kartonaži (platno natopljeno gipsom, modelirano i obojeno). Canopic tegle sada drže svoje unutrašnje organe. Amuleti od zlata, fajansa i karneol prvi put su se pojavili u različitim oblicima kako bi zaštitili različite dijelove tijela. Postoje i prvi dokazi o natpisima unutar lijesova elite tokom Starog kraljevstva. Često su se reljefi svakodnevnih predmeta urezivali na zidove dopunjavajući grobnu robu, što ih je činilo dostupnima kroz njihov prikaz.

Nova lažna vrata bila su nefunkcionalna kamena skulptura vrata, koja se nalazila unutar kapele ili sa vanjske strane mastabe i služila je kao mjesto za prinošenje ponuda i izgovaranje molitve za pokojnika. Kipovi pokojnika sada su uključeni u grobnice i korišteni u ritualne svrhe. Grobne odaje nekih privatnih ljudi dobile su svoje prve ukrase pored ukrasa kapela. Na kraju Starog kraljevstva ukrasi grobne odaje prikazivali su žrtve, ali ne i ljude. [13]

Prvo polugodište, regionalne varijacije Uredi

Politička situacija u Prvom prijelaznom razdoblju, sa mnogim centrima moći, ogleda se u mnogim lokalnim stilovima umjetnosti i sahrane u ovo doba. Mnogi regionalni stilovi za ukrašavanje kovčega čine njihovo podrijetlo lakim za razlikovanje. Na primjer, neki lijesovi imaju natpise u jednoj liniji, a mnogi stilovi uključuju prikaz Wadjet oči (ljudsko oko sa oznakama sokola). Postoje i regionalne varijacije u hijeroglifima koji se koriste za ukrašavanje kovčega.

Povremeno su muškarci u grobovima imali oruđe i oružje, dok su neke žene imale nakit i kozmetičke predmete poput ogledala. Žrvnjevi su ponekad bili uključeni u ženske grobnice, što se možda smatralo oruđem za pripremu hrane u budućem svijetu, baš kao što oružje u muškim grobnicama implicira dodjelu muškaraca ulozi u borbama. [14]

Srednje Kraljevstvo, Sadržaj nove grobnice Uredi

Običaji sahrane u Srednjem kraljevstvu odražavaju neke od političkih trendova ovog razdoblja. Tokom jedanaeste dinastije, grobnice su urezane u planine Tebe koje okružuju kraljevu grobnicu ili na lokalnim grobljima u Gornjem i Srednjem Egiptu Teba je bila rodni grad kraljeva jedanaeste dinastije i oni su radije tu bili sahranjeni. No, u dvanaestoj dinastiji visoki zvaničnici služili su kraljevima nove porodice koja sada vlada sa sjevera u Lištu. Ovi kraljevi i njihovi visoki dužnosnici radije su sahranjivali u mastabi u blizini piramida koje su pripadale njihovim gospodarima. Štoviše, razlika u topografiji između Tebe i Lishta dovela je do razlike u tipu grobova: na sjeveru plemići grade mastaba grobove na ravnim pustinjskim ravnicama, dok su na jugu lokalni dostojanstvenici nastavili iskopavati grobnice u planini.

Za one koji su bili niži od kraljevskih dvorjana tokom jedanaeste dinastije, grobnice su bile jednostavnije. Kovčezi su mogli biti jednostavne drvene kutije s tijelom bilo mumificiranim i umotanim u platno ili jednostavno umotanim bez mumifikacije, te dodatkom maske mumije od kartonaže, običaj koji se nastavio sve do grčko-rimskog razdoblja. Neke grobnice uključivale su drvene cipele i jednostavnu statuu blizu tijela. U jednoj sahrani bilo je samo dvanaest hljebova, goveđi but i staklenka piva za hranu. Nakit je mogao biti uključen, ali su se rijetko nalazili predmeti velike vrijednosti u neelitnim grobovima. Neki ukopi nastavili su uključivati ​​drvene modele koji su bili popularni tokom Prvog prijelaznog perioda. U grobnicama tog razdoblja pronađeni su drveni maketi čamaca, prizori proizvodnje hrane, zanatlije i radionice te profesije poput pisara ili vojnika.

Neki pravokutni lijesovi dvanaeste dinastije imaju kratke natpise i prikaze najvažnijih darova koje je pokojnik tražio. Za muškarce su prikazani predmeti oružje i simboli službe, kao i hrana. Ženski lijesovi prikazivali su ogledala, sandale i staklenke s hranom i pićem. Neki su lijesovi sadržavali tekstove koji su bili kasnije verzije tekstova kraljevske piramide.

Čini se da druga vrsta fajanse modela pokojnika kao mumije predviđa upotrebu shabti figurice (takođe se nazivaju) shawabti ili an ushabti) kasnije u dvanaestoj dinastiji. Ove rane figurice nemaju tekst koji upućuje lik na rad na mjestu pokojnika koji se nalazi u kasnijim figuricama. Najbogatiji ljudi imali su kamene figurice za koje se čini da ih predviđaju shabtis, iako su ih neki učenjaci vidjeli kao zamjene mumije, a ne kao sluge.

U kasnijoj dvanaestoj dinastiji dogodile su se značajne promjene u sahranama, možda odražavajući administrativne promjene koje je donio kralj Senwosret III (1836–1818 pne). Telo je sada redovno postavljano na leđa, a ne na bok, kao što se to radilo hiljadama godina. Tekstovi lijesova i drveni modeli nestali su iz novih grobnica tog razdoblja, dok su srbski skarabeji i figurice u obliku mumija sada često bili uvrštavani u sahrane, kao što bi bili do kraja egipatske povijesti. Ukrašavanje lijesa je pojednostavljeno. Trinaesta dinastija doživjela je još jednu promjenu u dekoraciji. Na sjeveru i jugu pronađeni su različiti motivi, što je odraz tadašnje decentralizirane vlasti. Također je zabilježen značajan porast broja ukopa u jednoj grobnici, rijetka pojava u ranijim periodima. Čini se da se ponovna upotreba jedne grobnice od strane porodice dogodila kada je bogatstvo bilo ravnomjernije raspoređeno. [15]

Drugo polugodište, ukopi za strance Uredi

Poznati grobovi iz drugog srednjeg perioda otkrivaju prisustvo ne-Egipćana sahranjenih u zemlji. Na sjeveru, grobovi povezani sa Hiksozima, zapadnim semitskim narodom koji vlada sjeverom od sjeveroistočne delte, uključuju male građevine od opeke od blata koje sadrže tijelo, posude od keramike, bodež u muškim grobovima i često obližnji ukop magaraca. Smatra se da jednostavni grobovi u obliku tave u različitim dijelovima zemlje pripadaju nubijskim vojnicima. Takvi grobovi odražavaju vrlo drevne običaje i sadrže plitke, okrugle jame, skupljena tijela i minimalnu ponudu hrane u loncima. Povremeno uključivanje egipatskih materijala koji se mogu identificirati iz Drugog srednjeg razdoblja daje jedine oznake koje razlikuju ove ukope od onih iz predinastičkog, pa čak i ranijih razdoblja. [16]

Novo kraljevstvo, namjene novih objekata Uredi

Većina elitnih grobnica u Novom Kraljevstvu bile su odaje urezane u stijene. Kraljevi su sahranjeni u višesobnim grobnicama isklesanim u stijenama u Dolini kraljeva, a ne više u piramidama. Svećenici su za njih sprovodili pogrebne rituale u kamenim hramovima izgrađenim na zapadnoj obali Nila nasuprot Tebi. Prema dosadašnjim dokazima, čini se da je osamnaesta dinastija posljednji period u kojem su Egipćani redovno uključivali više predmeta iz svog svakodnevnog života u svoje grobnice počevši od devetnaeste dinastije, grobovi su sadržavali manje predmeta iz svakodnevnog života i uključivali su predmete napravljene posebno za sljedeći svijet . Stoga je promjena iz osamnaeste u devetnaestu dinastiju stvorila liniju razdvajanja u tradicijama sahranjivanja: osamnaesta dinastija se pobliže sjećala neposredne prošlosti u svojim običajima, dok je devetnaesta dinastija predviđala običaje kasnog razdoblja.

Ljudi iz elitnih redova u osamnaestoj dinastiji postavljali su namještaj, odjeću i druge predmete u svoje grobnice, predmete koje su nesumnjivo koristili tokom života na zemlji. Kreveti, nasloni za glavu, stolice, stolice, kožne sandale, nakit, muzički instrumenti i drveni sanduci za skladištenje bili su prisutni u ovim grobnicama. Iako su svi navedeni predmeti bili za elitu, mnogi siromašni ljudi u svoje grobnice nisu stavili ništa osim oružja i kozmetike.

Nijedna elitna grobnica nije preživjela neograđena iz perioda Ramesside. U ovom periodu umjetnici su ukrašavali grobnice koje pripadaju eliti sa više prizora vjerskih događaja, umjesto svakodnevne scene koja je bila popularna još od Starog kraljevstva. Sama sahrana, pogrebni obrok sa više rođaka, obožavanje bogova, čak su i figure u podzemlju bile subjekti u elitnim grobnim ukrasima. Većina predmeta pronađenih u grobnicama iz perioda Ramesside napravljena je za zagrobni život. Osim nakita, koji je mogao biti korišten i tokom života, predmeti u grobnicama Ramesside izrađeni su za sljedeći svijet. [17]

Uređivanje trećeg srednjeg perioda

Iako se politička struktura Novog kraljevstva srušila krajem dvadesete dinastije, većina ukopa u dvadeset prvoj dinastiji direktno odražava razvoj događaja iz ranijeg perioda. Početkom ovog vremena reljefi su nalikovali onima iz perioda Ramesside. Tek na samom kraju Trećeg srednjeg razdoblja počele su se primjećivati ​​nove pogrebne prakse kasnog razdoblja.

Malo se zna o grobnicama iz tog perioda. Čini se da je sam nedostatak ukrasa u grobnicama doveo do mnogo složenijeg ukrašavanja lijesova. Preostala grobna dobra iz tog perioda pokazuju se relativno jeftino shabtis, čak i kad je vlasnica bila kraljica ili princeza. [18]

Kasno razdoblje, monumentalnost i povratak tradicijama Uređivanje

Sahrane u kasnom periodu mogle bi iskoristiti velike grobnice nalik hramovima izgrađene za ne-kraljevsku elitu po prvi put. No, većina grobnica u tom razdoblju bila je u šahtovima potopljenim u pustinjsko tlo. Osim lijepih kipova i reljefa koji odražavaju stil Starog kraljevstva, većina grobnih predmeta izrađena je posebno za grobnicu. Lijesovi su i dalje nosili vjerske tekstove i scene. Neka su okna personalizirana upotrebom stele s molitvama pokojnika i imenom na njoj. Shabtis u fajansi za sve klase su poznati. Canopic staklenke, iako često nefunkcionalne, i dalje su uključene. Često su bili prisutni i štapići i žezla koja su predstavljala ured pokojnika u životu. Mogla se pronaći drvena figura boga Ozirisa [19] ili složenog božanstva Ptah-Sokar-Ozirisa, [20] [21] zajedno sa srbijanskim skarabejima, primjercima zlatnih i fajanse djed-stupova, amajlijama oka Horusa , likovi bogova i slike umrlih ba. Alati za ritual grobnice zvani "otvaranje usta", kao i "magične cigle" na četiri tačke kompasa mogli su biti uključeni. [22]

Ptolomejsko razdoblje, helenistički utjecaji Uredi

Nakon što je Aleksandar Veliki osvojio Egipat, zemljom su vladali potomci Ptolomeja, jednog od njegovih generala. Makedonska grčka porodica njegovala je kulturu koja je promovirala i helenistički i staroegipatski način života: dok su mnogi ljudi koji govore grčkim jezikom i koji su živjeli u Aleksandriji slijedili običaje kopnene Grčke, drugi su usvojili egipatske običaje, dok su Egipćani nastavili slijediti svoje već drevne običaje.

Poznato je vrlo malo Ptolomejskih grobnica. Fini hramski kip iz tog perioda sugerira mogućnost grobničke skulpture i nudi stolove. Egipatski elitni ukopi i dalje su koristili kamene sarkofage. Knjige mrtvih i amajlije takođe su bile popularne. [23]

Rimsko razdoblje, Rimski utjecaji Uredi

Rimljani su osvojili Egipat 30. godine prije nove ere, čime je okončana vladavina posljednje i najpoznatije članice Ptolomejske dinastije, Kleopatre VII. Za vrijeme rimske vladavine razvio se elitni hibridni stil sahrane koji uključuje i egipatske i rimske elemente.

Neki su ljudi bili mumificirani i umotani u lanene zavoje. Prednji dio mumije često je bio oslikavan izborom tradicionalnih egipatskih simbola. Mumije su se mogle dodati maske mumije u tradicionalnom egipatskom stilu ili rimskom stilu. Druga mogućnost je bio portret mumije u rimskom stilu, izveden enkaustikom (pigment suspendiran u vosku) na drvenoj ploči. Ponekad su noge mumije bile prekrivene. Alternativa ovome bio je potpuni pokrov s egipatskim motivima, ali portret u rimskom stilu. Grobnice elite takođe mogu uključivati ​​fini nakit. [24]

Grčki istoričari Herodot (5. vek pre nove ere) i Diodorus Sikulus (1. vek pre nove ere) pružaju najpotpunije sačuvane dokaze o tome kako su stari Egipćani pristupili očuvanju mrtvog tela. [25] Prije balzamiranja ili očuvanja mrtvog tijela kako bi se odgodilo ili spriječilo propadanje, ožalošćeni, posebno ako su pokojnici imali visoki status, prekrivali su lica blatom i paradirali po gradu dok su ih tukli u prsa. [25] Ako je supruga muškarca visokog statusa umrla, njeno tijelo nije balzamirano sve dok nisu prošla tri ili četiri dana, jer je to spriječilo zloupotrebu leša. [25] U slučaju da se neko utopio ili bio napadnut, balzamiranje je izvršeno odmah na njihovom tijelu, na sveti i pažljiv način. Ova vrsta smrti smatrana je štovanom, a samo su svećenici mogli dotaknuti tijelo. [25]

Nakon balzamiranja, ožalošćeni su možda izveli ritual koji uključuje donošenje presude tokom bdijenja u satu, s dobrovoljcima koji će igrati ulogu Ozirisa i njegovog neprijateljskog brata Seta, kao i bogova Izide, Nephthys, Horus, Anubis i Thoth . [26] Kako priča priča, Set je bio zavidan svom bratu Ozirisu što je prije njega dobio prijestolje, pa je planirao da ga ubije. Ozirisova supruga, Isis, borila se naprijed -nazad sa Setom kako bi zauzela Ozirisovo tijelo, a kroz ovu borbu, Ozirisov duh je izgubljen. [27] Ipak, Oziris je uskrsnuo i vraćen je kao bog. [28] Osim rekonstrukcije Ozirisove presude, brojne pogrebne povorke provedene su po obližnjoj nekropoli, koje su simbolizirale različita sveta putovanja. [26]

Pogrebna povorka do grobnice općenito je uključivala stoku koja je vukla tijelo u nosaču saonica, sa prijateljima i porodicom. Tokom povorke, sveštenik je palio tamjan i sipao mleko pred mrtvo telo. [26] Po dolasku u grobnicu, i u suštini sljedeći život, svećenik je obavio ceremoniju otvaranja usta na pokojniku. Pokojnikova glava bila je okrenuta prema jugu, a tijelo je zamišljeno kao kip pokojnika. Otvaranje usta pokojnika simboliziralo je omogućavanje osobi da govori i brani se tokom sudskog procesa. Pokojniku je tada ponuđena roba da završi ceremoniju. [26]

Balzamiranje Edit

Očuvanje mrtvog tijela bilo je kritično ako je pokojnik želio priliku za prihvaćanje u zagrobni život. U okviru staroegipatskog koncepta duše, ka, koja predstavlja vitalnost, napušta tijelo kada osoba umre. [29] Samo ako je tijelo balzamirano na određeni način ka povratak u tijelo preminulog i ponovno rođenje. [25] Balzamovali su primili tijelo nakon smrti i na sistematičan način ga pripremili za mumifikaciju. Porodica i prijatelji pokojnika imali su izbor u rasponu cijena za pripremu tijela, slično procesu u modernim pogrebnim kućama. Zatim su balzameri dopratili tijelo do ibw, prevedeno na „mjesto pročišćavanja“, šator u kojem je tijelo oprano, a zatim per nefer, "Kuća ljepote", gdje se dogodila mumifikacija. [25]

Proces mumifikacije Edit

Kako bi živjeli cijelu vječnost i bili predstavljeni pred Ozirisom, tijelo pokojnika moralo je biti očuvano mumifikacijom, tako da se duša mogla ponovno sjediniti s njim i uživati ​​u zagrobnom životu. Glavni proces mumifikacije bio je očuvanje tijela dehidracijom pomoću natrona, prirodne soli koja se nalazi u Wadi Natrunu. Tijelo je iscijeđeno iz tekućine i ostavljeno sa očuvanom kožom, kosom i mišićima. [30] Za proces mumifikacije se kaže da je trajao do sedamdeset dana. Tokom ovog procesa, posebni svećenici radili su kao balzamiratori dok su liječili i zamotavali tijelo pokojnika pripremajući se za ukop.

Proces mumifikacije bio je dostupan svima koji su to mogli priuštiti. Vjerovalo se da čak i oni koji si nisu mogli priuštiti ovaj proces i dalje mogu uživati ​​u zagrobnom životu uz pravilno izgovaranje uroka. Mumifikacija je postojala u tri različita procesa, u rasponu od najskupljeg, umjereno skupog i najjednostavnijeg ili najjeftinijeg. [25] Najklasičnija, uobičajena i najskuplja metoda mumifikacije datira iz 18. dinastije. Prvi korak bio je uklanjanje unutrašnjih organa i tekućine kako tijelo ne bi propadalo. Nakon što su položeni na stol, balzameri su izvadili mozak kroz proces koji se zove ekcebracija umetanjem metalne kuke kroz nosnicu, probijajući je u mozak. Udicom su uklonili koliko su mogli, a ostatak su ukapljili drogom i ocijedili. [25] Izbacili su mozak jer su mislili da srce misli. Sljedeći korak bio je uklanjanje unutrašnjih organa, pluća, jetre, želuca i crijeva i stavljanje u kanopske staklenke s poklopcima u obliku glava zaštitnih božanstava, četiri Horusova sina: Imsetyja, Hapyja, Duamutefa i Qebhseneuf. Imsety je imao ljudsku glavu i čuvao jetru. Hapy je imao majmunske glave i čuvao je pluća. Duamutef je imao glavu šakala i čuvao je želudac. Qebhseneuf je imao jastrebove glave i čuvao je tanko i debelo crijevo. [25] Ponekad su četiri tegle sa baldahinom stavljene u sanduk s kanopom i zakopane s mumificiranim tijelom. Kanupi sanduk podsjećao je na "minijaturni lijes" i bio je zamršeno obojen. Stari Egipćani vjerovali su da će sahranjivanjem pokojnika sa svojim organima moći da im se pridruže u zagrobnom životu. [26] Drugi put, organi su bili očišćeni i očišćeni, a zatim su vraćeni u tijelo. [25] The body cavity was then rinsed and cleaned with wine and an array of spices. The body was sewn up with aromatic plants and spices left inside. [25] The heart stayed in the body, because in the hall of judgement, it would be weighed against the feather of Maat. After the body was washed with wine, it was stuffed with bags of natron. The dehydration process took 40 days. [27]

The second part of the process took 30 days. This was the time where the deceased turned into a semi divine being, and all that was left in the body from the first part was removed, followed by applying first wine and then oils. The oils were for ritual purposes, as well as for preventing the limbs and bones from breaking while being wrapped. The body was sometimes colored with a golden resin, which protected the body from bacteria and insects. Additionally, this practice was based on the belief that divine beings had flesh of gold. Next, the body was wrapped in linen cut into strips with amulets while a priest recited prayers and burned incense. The linen was adhered to the body using gum, opposed to a glue. [25] The dressing provided the body physical protection from the elements, and depending on how wealthy the deceased's family was, the deceased could be dressed with an ornamented funeral mask and shroud. [25] Special care was given to the head, hands, feet, and genitals, as contemporary mummies reveal extra wrappings and paddings in these areas. [31] Mummies were identified via small, wooden name-tags tied typically around the deceased's neck. [25] The 70-day process is connected to Osiris and the length the star Sothis was absent from the sky. [28]

The second, moderately expensive option for mummification did not involve an incision into the abdominal cavity or the removal of the internal organs. Instead, the embalmers injected the oil of a cedar tree into the body, which prevented liquid from leaving the body. The body was then laid in natron for a specific number of days. The oil was then drained out of the body, and with it came the internal organs, the stomach and the intestines, which were liquefied by the cedar oil. The flesh dissolved in the natron, which left only skin and bones left of the deceased body. The remains are given back to the family. [25] The cheapest, most basic method of mummification, which was often chosen by the poor, involved purging out the deceased's internal organs, and then laying the body in natron for 70 days. The body was then given back to the family. [25]

Animal mummification Edit

Animals were mummified in Ancient Egypt for many reasons. Household pets that held a special important to their owners were buried alongside them. However, animals were not only viewed as pets but as incarnations of the gods. Therefore, these animals were buried to honor ancient Egyptian deities. Some animal mummifications were performed to serve as sacred offerings to the gods who often took the form of animals such as cats, frogs, cows, baboons, and vultures. Other animals were mummified with the intention of being a food offering to humans in the afterlife. Additionally, household pets that held a special important to their owners were buried alongside them.

Several kinds of animal remains have been discovered in tombs all around Dayr al-Barsha, a Coptic village in Middle Egypt. The remains found in the shafts and burial chambers included dogs, foxes, eagle owls, bats, rodents, and snakes. These were determined to be individuals that had entered the deposits by accident. Other animal remains that were found were more common and recurred more than those individuals that wound up accidentally trapped in these tombs. These remains included numerous gazelle and cattle bones, as well as calves and goats which were believed to have been in result of human behavior. This was due to finding that some remains had fragments altered, missing, or separated from their original skeletons. These remains also had traces of paint and cut marks on them, seen especially with cattle skulls and feet. Based on this, the natural environment of the Dayr al-Barsha tombs, and the fact that only some parts of these animals were found, the possibility of natural deposition can be ruled out, and the cause of these remains in fact are most likely caused by animal sacrifices, as only the head, foreleg, and feet were apparently selected for deposition within the tombs. According to a study by Christopher Eyre, cattle meat was actually not a part of the daily diet in Ancient Egypt, as the consumption of meat only took place during celebrations including funerary and mortuary rituals, and the practice of providing the deceased with offerings of cattle going back to the Predynastic Period. [32]

After the mummy was prepared, it would need to be re-animated, symbolically, by a priest. The opening of the mouth ceremony was conducted by a priest who would utter a spell and touch the mummy or sarcophagus with a ceremonial adze – a copper or stone blade. This ceremony ensured that the mummy could breathe and speak in the afterlife. In a similar fashion, the priest could utter spells to reanimate the mummy's arms, legs, and other body parts.

The priests, maybe even the king's successor, proceeded to move the body through the causeway to the mortuary temple. This is where prayers were recited, incense was burned, and more rituals were performed to help prepare the king for his final journey. The king's mummy was then placed inside the pyramid along with enormous amount of food, drink, furniture, clothes, and jewelry which were to be used in the afterlife. The pyramid was sealed so that no one would ever enter it again. However, the king's soul could move through the burial chamber as it wished. After the funeral the king becomes a god and could be worshipped in the temples beside his pyramid. [33]

In ancient times Egyptians were buried directly in the ground. Since the weather was so hot and dry, it was easy for the bodies to remain preserved. Usually the bodies would be buried in the fetal position. [34] Ancient Egyptians believed the burial process to be an important part in sending humans to a comfortable afterlife. The Egyptians believed that, after death, the deceased could still have such feelings of anger, or hold a grudge as the living. The deceased were also expected to support and help their living family. [35] They believed that the Ba i Ka are what enabled the dead to support their family. The Ba made it possible for an invisible twin to be released from the body to support the family, while the Ka would recognize the twin when it would come back to the body. [36] With the ideas of the dead being so valuable, it is clear why the Egyptians treated the deceased with respect. The less fortunate Egyptians still wanted their family members to be given a proper burial. A typical burial would be held in the desert where the family would wrap the body in a cloth and bury it with everyday objects for the dead to be comfortable. [37] Although some could afford mummification, most commoners were not mummified due to the expense. [38] Often the poor are found in mass graves where their bodies are not mummified and only with minimal household objects, spread out throughout the desert, often in areas that are now populated. [ potreban citat ]

The tomb was the housing for the deceased and served two crucial functions: the tomb provided infinite protection for the deceased to rest, as well as a place for mourners to perform rituals in which aided the deceased into eternal life. Therefore, the ancient Egyptians were very serious about the way in which the tombs were built. [39] Two hallmarks of the tomb included: a burial chamber, which housed the physical body of the deceased (inside a coffin) as well as funerary objects deemed most important, and a "cult place," which resembled a chapel where mourners, family, and friends could congregate. The tomb of a king included a full temple, instead of a chapel. [39]

Typically, the tomb of a deceased person was located somewhere close by their home community. The ancient Egyptians opted to bury the deceased in land that was not particularly fertile or useful for vegetation. Therefore, tombs were mostly built in desert areas. Tombs were usually built near each other and rarely stood alone. For a deceased king, however, the tomb was located in a place of utmost sacredness. [39]

In the Prehistoric Egypt, bodies were buried in deserts because they would naturally be preserved by dehydration. The "graves" were small oval or rectangular pits dug in the sand. They could give the body of the deceased in a tight position on its left side alongside a few jars of food and drink and slate palettes with magical religious spells. The size of graves eventually increased according to status and wealth. The dry, desert conditions were a benefit in ancient Egypt for burials of the poor, who could not afford the complex burial preparations that the wealthy had.

The simple graves evolved into mudbrick structures called mastabas. Royal mastabas later developed into step pyramids and then "true pyramids." [40] As soon as a king took the throne he would start to build his pyramid. Rituals of the burial, including the "Opening of the mouth ceremony" took place at the Valley Temple. [33] [41] While a pyramid's large size was made to protect against robbery, it may also be connected to a religious belief about the sun god, Ra. [42]

A majority of cemeteries were located on the west bank of the Nile, which was metaphorically viewed as "the realm of the dead." The tomb was said to represent the deceased's place in the cosmos, which ultimately depended on the social class of the deceased. If the deceased was of a notably high-class, they were buried near the king, whereas middle and lower class individuals were simply buried near the communities in which they had lived. [39] In many cases, the tombs of the high-class were situated in accordance with the tombs of the lower classes so that they would be viewed as a "focal point." For example, one burial site was designed so that the tombs of the governors were placed alongside the slope of a hill, whereas the tombs of the governor's attendants were placed at the foot of the hill. [39]

After having been preserved, the mummy was placed into a coffin. Although the coffins that housed the deceased bodies were made simply of wood, they were intricately painted and designed to suit each individual. During the Old Kingdom, the following was included on each coffin: the title of the deceased, a list of offerings, a false compartment through which ka could pass through, and painted eyes so that the deceased could look through the coffin. [43] The decorations on the coffin usually fit the deceased's status.

During the Middle Kingdom, the coffin was treated as if it were a "miniature tomb" and was painted and inscribed like so. Goddesses Isis and Nephthys were painted on the coffins, and were said to guard the deceased in the afterlife. Along the sides of the coffins, the four sons of Horus were painted, amongst other gods. Prayers were often inscribed on the coffins as well. [43]

Anthropoid coffins soon emerged, which were tailored to the contour of the deceased's body. The deceased's face and hair was painted onto the coffin so to personalize it further. [43] A sarcophagus, which is a large, stone container, was used to house the coffin, and provide supplementary protection to the dead body. The Ancient Egyptians translated the word "sarcophagus" to mean "possessor of life," and therefore, the sarcophagus would aid the deceased into the afterlife. [44]

One of the funerary practices followed by the Egyptians was preparing properly for the afterlife. Ka, the vital force within the Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul, would not return to the deceased body if embalming was not carried out in the proper fashion. [29] In this case, the body decayed, and possibly became unrecognizable, which rendered the afterlife unattainable for the deceased person. [25] If the proper precautions were not taken, damnation would occur. Damnation meant that Egyptians would not experience the glories of the afterlife where they became a deified figure and would be welcomed by the Gods. [45] Instead, damnation was depicted in the books of the underworld. It was a place of opposites chaos, fire, and struggle. [45] Different pages of the books of the underworld depict different perspectives of what happens during damnation. It discusses cutting out humanity and individuality from the person and reversing the cosmic order. [45]

The idea of judgement went as follows: in order to be considered for the admittance into the afterlife, those who died were obligated to undergo a multi-step judgement by certain gods. [39] The concept and belief in judgement is outlined in the Book of the Dead, a funerary text of the New Kingdom. The Book of the Dead is composed of spells relating to the deceased and the afterlife. Spell 125, in particular, is understood to be delivered by the deceased at the outset of the judgement process. [39]

The visual picture of what judgement looks like has been discovered through ancient Egyptian ruins and artefacts. The procedure was depicted as follows: the deceased's heart was weighed in comparison to the feather of Maat, while Ammit awaited to eat the heart (if the deceased was found to be a sinner). [39] Osiris was the judge (among others), and represented an ideal output of the judgement process for the deceased who entered his judgement hall. This is because he resurrected and regained his godly status after he was justified against his brother Set, who wrongly murdered him. [28] The deceased pleaded to Osiris that they had not committed sin, which is known as a "negative confession." [28] The forty-two Assessors of Maat judged how virtuous the life of the deceased was, and this represented the principal element of the deceased entering the afterlife. After passing judgement, the family and friends of the deceased celebrated them and boasted about their righteousness to attain entry into the afterlife. [25]

Many mummies were provided with some form of funerary literature to take with them to the afterlife. Most funerary literature consists of lists of spells and instructions for navigating the afterlife. During the Old Kingdom, only the pharaoh had access to this material, which scholars refer to as the Pyramid Texts. The Pyramid Texts are a collection of spells to assure the royal resurrection and protect the pharaoh from various malignant influences. The Pharaoh Unas was the first to use this collection of spells, as he and a few subsequent pharaohs had them carved on the walls of their pyramids. [46] These texts were individually chosen from a larger bank of spells.

In the First Intermediate Period and in the Middle Kingdom, some of the Pyramid Text spells also are found in burial chambers of high officials and on many coffins, where they begin to evolve into what scholars call the Coffin Texts. In this period, the nobles and many non-royal Egyptians began to have access to funerary literature. Although many spells from the earlier texts were carried over, the new coffin texts also had additional spells, along with slight changes made to make this new funerary text more fit for the nobility. [6]

In the New Kingdom, the Coffin Texts became the Book of the Dead, or the Funeral Papyri, and would last through the Late Kingdom. The text in these books was divided according to chapters/ spells, which were almost two-hundred in number. Each one of these texts was individualized for the deceased, though to varying degrees. If the person was rich enough, then they could commission their own personal version of the text that would include only the spells that they wanted. However, if one was not so wealthy, then one had to make do with the pre-made versions that had spaces left for the name of the deceased.

If the scribe ran out of room while doing the transcription, he would just stop the spell wherever he was and would not continue. [47] It is not until the Twenty-sixth Dynasty that there began to be any regulation of the order or even the number of spells that were to be included in the Book of the Dead. At this time, the regulation is set at 192 spells to be placed in the book, with certain ones holding the same place at all times. [48] This makes it seem as if the order of the texts was not what was important, so the person could place them in an order that he was comfortable with, but rather that it was what was written that mattered.

Although the types of burial goods changed throughout ancient Egyptian history, their purpose to protect the deceased and provide sustenance in the afterlife remained.

From the earliest periods of Egyptian history, all Egyptians were buried with at least some goods that they thought were necessary after death. At a minimum, these consisted of everyday objects such as bowls, combs, and other trinkets, along with food. Wealthier Egyptians could afford to be buried with jewelry, furniture, and other valuables, which made them targets of tomb robbers. In the early Dynastic Period, tombs were filled with daily life objects, such as furniture, jewelry and other valuables. They also contained many stone and pottery vessels. [49] One important factor in the development of Ancient Egyptian tombs was the need of storage space for funerary goods.

As burial customs developed in the Old Kingdom, wealthy citizens were buried in wooden or stone coffins. However, the number of burial goods declined. They were often just a set of copper models, tools and vessels. [50] Starting in the First Intermediate period, wooden models became very popular burial goods. These wooden models often depict everyday activities that the deceased expected to continue doing in the afterlife. Also, a type of rectangular coffin became the standard, being brightly painted and often including an offering formula. Objects of daily use were not often included in the tombs during this period.

At the end of the Middle Kingdom, new object types were introduced into burials, such as the first shabtis and the first heart scarabs. Shabtis were little clay statues made to perform tasks on command for the pharaoh. Now objects of daily use appear in tombs again, often magical items already employed for protecting the living. Scarabs (beetles) collect animal dung and roll it into little balls. To the Egyptians, these balls looked like the life-giving Sun, so they hoped that scarabs would bring them long life. Scarabs have been found in tombs and graves. [51]

In the New Kingdom, some of the old burial customs changed. For example, an anthropoid coffin shape became standardized, and the deceased were provided with a small shabti statue, which the Egyptians believed would perform work for them in the afterlife. Elite burials were often filled with objects of daily use. Under Ramesses II and later all daily life objects disappear from tombs. They most often only contained a selection of items especially made for the burial. Also, in later burials, the numbers of shabti statues increased in some burials, numbering more than four hundred statues. In addition to these shabti statues, the deceased could be buried with many different types of magical figurines to protect them from harm.

Funerary boats were a part of some ancient Egyptian burials. [52] Boats played a major role in Egyptian religion because they were conceived as the main means by which the gods traveled across the sky and through to the netherworld. One type of boat used at funerals was for making pilgrimages to holy sites such as Abydos. A large funerary boat, for example, was found near the pyramid of the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Khufu. The funerary boats were usually made of wood the Egyptians used a collection of papyrus reeds and tied them together with the wood very tightly. [53] The most common route for funerary boats was the River Nile to the afterlife. The boat carried the coffin and often had a dog in the boat since they believed a dog would lead the deceased to the afterlife. [54] The boats usually measured about 20 feet or longer. These however did not match those of the great pharaohs like Pharaoh Khufu (who built the Great Pyramid). His funerary boat was approximately 144 foot long with 12 oars. Common funerary boats were smaller sized with few oars. [55]

At the Ure Museum, there is an Egyptian funerary boat on display that represents a typical tomb offering. This boat symbolizes the transport of the dead from life to the afterlife. In Ancient Egypt death was seen as a boat journey. More specifically, it was seen as a trip across their River Nile that joined the North and South. This funerary boat offering was added to the museum's collection in 1923 from the Liverpool Institute of Archaeology from the Tomb of the Officials at Beni Hassan.

Through the study of mummies themselves in addition to ancient writers and modern scientists, a better understanding of the Ancient Egyptian mummification process is promoted. The majority of what is known to be true about the mummification process is based on the writing of early historians who carefully recorded the processes-- one of which was Herodotus. Now, modern day archaeologists are using the writings of early historians as a basis for their study. The advancement of new technology including x-rays has allowed for the analysis of mummies without destroying the elaborate outer wrappings of the body. In addition to the use of x-rays, autopsies are also being performed in order to gain a better understanding of the diseases suffered by Ancient Egyptians as well as the treatments used for these diseases. A pregnant mummy sheds light on pregnancy complications and prenatal care and treatments. [56] [57] In learning their age of death, experts are able to create a timeline of the dates regarding the ruling of Egyptian kings. In looking at the bones of the mummified bodies, experts get a better idea of the average height and life span. Studying Ancient Egyptian Mummies, archaeologists are able to learn about the past.


Ancient genomes uncover Irish passage tomb dynastic elite

Archaeologists and geneticists, led by those from Trinity College Dublin, have shed new light on the earliest periods of Ireland's human history.

Among their incredible findings is the discovery that the genome of an adult male buried in the heart of the Newgrange passage tomb points to first-degree incest, implying he was among a ruling social elite akin to the similarly inbred Inca god-kings and Egyptian pharaohs.

Older than the pyramids, Newgrange passage tomb in Ireland is world famous for its annual solar alignment where the winter solstice sunrise illuminates its sacred inner chamber in a golden blast of light. However, little is known about who was interred in the heart of this imposing 200,000 tonne monument or of the Neolithic society which built it over 5,000 years ago.

The survey of ancient Irish genomes, published today in leading international journal, Priroda, suggests a man who had been buried in this chamber belonged to a dynastic elite. The research, led by the research team from Trinity, was carried out in collaboration with colleagues from University College London, National University of Ireland Galway, University College Cork, University of Cambridge, Queen's University Belfast, and Institute of Technology Sligo.

"I'd never seen anything like it," said Dr Lara Cassidy, Trinity, first author of the paper. "We all inherit two copies of the genome, one from our mother and one from our father well, this individual's copies were extremely similar, a tell-tale sign of close inbreeding. In fact, our analyses allowed us to confirm that his parents were first-degree relatives."

Matings of this type (e.g. brother-sister unions) are a near universal taboo for entwined cultural and biological reasons. The only confirmed social acceptances of first-degree incest are found among the elites -- typically within a deified royal family. By breaking the rules, the elite separates itself from the general population, intensifying hierarchy and legitimizing power. Public ritual and extravagant monumental architecture often co-occur with dynastic incest, to achieve the same ends.

"Here the auspicious location of the male skeletal remains is matched by the unprecedented nature of his ancient genome," said Professor of Population Genetics at Trinity, Dan Bradley. "The prestige of the burial makes this very likely a socially sanctioned union and speaks of a hierarchy so extreme that the only partners worthy of the elite were family members."

The team also unearthed a web of distant familial relations between this man and other individuals from sites of the passage tomb tradition across the country, including the mega-cemeteries of Carrowmore and Carrowkeel in Co. Sligo.

"It seems what we have here is a powerful extended kin-group, who had access to elite burial sites in many regions of the island for at least half a millennium," added Dr Cassidy.

Remarkably, a local myth resonates with these results and the Newgrange solar phenomenon. First recorded in the 11th century AD, four millennia after construction, the story tells of a builder-king who restarted the daily solar cycle by sleeping with his sister. The Middle Irish place name for the neighbouring Dowth passage tomb, Fertae Chuile, is based on this lore and can be translated as 'Hill of Sin'.

"Given the world-famous solstice alignments of Brú na Bóinne, the magical solar manipulations in this myth already had scholars questioning how long an oral tradition could survive," said Dr Ros Ó Maoldúin, an archaeologist on the study. "To now discover a potential prehistoric precedent for the incestuous aspect is extraordinary."

The genome survey stretched over two millennia and unearthed other unexpected results. Within the oldest known burial structure on the island, Poulnabrone portal tomb, the earliest yet diagnosed case of Down Syndrome was discovered in a male infant who was buried there five and a half thousand years ago. Isotope analyses of this infant showed a dietary signature of breastfeeding. In combination, this provides an indication that visible difference was not a barrier to prestige burial in the deep past.

Additionally, the analyses showed that the monument builders were early farmers who migrated to Ireland and replaced the hunter-gatherers who preceded them. However, this replacement was not absolute a single western Irish individual was found to have an Irish hunter-gatherer in his recent family tree, pointing toward a swamping of the earlier population rather than an extermination.

Genomes from the rare remains of Irish hunter-gatherers themselves showed they were most closely related to the hunter-gatherer populations from Britain (e.g. Cheddar Man) and mainland Europe. However, unlike British samples, these earliest Irelanders had the genetic imprint of a prolonged island isolation. This fits with what we know about prehistoric sea levels after the Ice Age: Britain maintained a land bridge to the continent long after the retreat of the glaciers, while Ireland was separated by sea and its small early populations must have arrived in primitive boats.

This work was funded by a Science Foundation Ireland/Health Research Board/Wellcome Trust Biomedical Research Partnership Investigator Award to Dan Bradley and an earlier Irish Research Council Government of Ireland Scholarship to Lara Cassidy.


Artifact Trove at Egyptian Tomb Illuminates Life Before Pharaohs

Archaeologist uncovers human sacrifices and evidence of strife.

A recently discovered tomb at a key Egyptian settlement has yielded the largest trove of artifacts ever found in a tomb there—including a young man's burned and scattered bones—and is shedding new light on the ancestors of the pharaohs.

Part of a cemetery complex that predates the formation of the ancient Egyptian state, the find is one of the richest "predynastic" burials archaeologists have ever seen.

The tomb, at the site known as Hierakonpolis, yielded 54 objects, including combs, spearheads, arrowheads, and a figurine made of hippopotamus ivory. Arrayed around the tomb are dozens more burials, including possible human sacrifices and exotic animals.

The latest find, announced earlier this month, is adding to the remarkable story coming out of the Hierakonpolis cemetery, which has been under investigation since 1979.

"It demonstrates the importance of this cemetery, with its high-status burials," says Boston University archaeologist Kathryn Bard. "They have some very interesting secondary burials of humans and animals and wooden structures that are unique to Hierakonpolis."

Hierakonpolis, located on the Nile River about 300 miles (500 kilometers) south of Cairo, was the most important settlement in Egypt's predynastic period, a five-century stretch that began around 3,500 B.C. and preceded the formation of the ancient Egyptian state.

The finds at Hierakonpolis show that the roots of ancient Egyptian civilization stretched back centuries. There are clear signs of social divisions, with elite tombs that are richer and larger than others. "There must have been a whole dynasty of predynastic kings," says Renee Friedman, a British Museum archaeologist who is director of the expedition.

The Hierakonpolis elite erected elaborate wooden structures over their tombs, parts of which have been preserved for more than 6,000 years by the dry climate. Their graves were surrounded by retainers, wild animals, and other accoutrements for their journey into the afterlife, foreshadowings of the mighty civilization that followed.

Human Sacrifices, Posthumous Desecration

The man buried in what's known at Hierakonpolis as Tomb 72 was between 17 and 20 years old when he died. His high status in life is reflected in the deadly ceremony that must have accompanied his death: He was buried with at least 20 people.

"It's unlikely their deaths were natural," Friedman says. Analysis of their skeletons suggests most were well nourished and unusually tall for the time, between five feet eight and five feet ten. Two of them were dwarfs, which were a fascination for ancient Egyptians.

Because the tomb hadn't been disturbed for many millennia, Friedman's team was able to reconstruct a shocking act of desecration that took place there.

The occupant's skeleton had been scattered, and the tomb's wood posts show evidence of fire damage. Friedman thinks the grave had been violated soon after the owner's death, and the body and the wooden structure over the tomb deliberately set on fire.

The many grave goods left inside indicate that the grave robbers' goal wasn't loot, but some sort of postmortem vengeance. "The owner of the tomb had been yanked out, while the other objects had been left alone," Friedman says. "That's not plundering—this was an act of aggression. The point wasn't to take goodies, it was to destroy this person."

The destruction may have had something to do with political and social changes Friedman says rocked the Egyptian world not long after the man in Tomb 72 died. "There are no more elite burials, and the middle class seems to be getting richer," Friedman says. "There's a real change in the status quo. There must have been some kind of revolution."

Could the destruction of Tomb 72 and its owner have been an early form of class warfare? "Maybe this is about anger at those who have kept you down," Friedman suggests. "Is there something going on where the elite at Hierakonpolis are being called to book?"

Others are more cautious. The evidence for social upheaval is limited, and Bard says it's a stretch to even call the man buried in the tomb a king.

With no inscriptions or other written evidence in the tomb, "no one knows his exact political role, other than that he was a very high-status person," she cautions. "There's no way you can attribute a political role to a prehistoric burial."


Ancient Egyptian Artifacts

The ancient Egyptian civilization has been blessed with a vast long history so when it comes to archaeological discoveries, very few countries can measure up to the ancient Egyptian artifacts.

For more than 4000 years the ancient Egyptian civilization created some of the most enchanting and beautiful artifacts the world has ever seen that remains virtually unchanged until over the current day.

The sense of artistic design was mainly affected by their profound reverence for the gods & holy pharaohs and was also used to tell the story of the elite upper class.

Egypt holds a massive trove of history which includes many incredible and mysterious discoveries within the tombs and temples of the Egyptian dunes.

All the ancient Egyptian artifacts were designed to fit an absolute vision of order, perfection, and symmetric imagery to showcase stories that would last forever.

Over the countless centuries, many archeologists and Egyptologists wondered across Egypt to search for the hidden heavenly treasures all across this holy country.

Many majestic artifacts have been discovered that attract travelers from all over the world which come in different shapes, functions, and sizes which can be found in the Egyptian museum such as:


Nut and Geb

Nut Raised Above Geb. Image © Bernard Perroud

Nut, the goddess of the night sky, and her brother Geb, the god of the earth, were originally thought to be in a constant state of love making. Ra grew angry with his grandchildren, and commanded their father Shu to separate the two lovers. The god of the air took his place, and trampled on the ithyphallic Geb, and lifted Nut high into the air. Nut was found to be pregnant, and was then cursed by Ra – she would never be able to bear her children on any month of the 360 day year. Thoth managed to win a game against Khonsu, god of the moon, and used some of the light of the moon to create five extra days (making the year 365 days). During those days Nut gave birth to her five children – Isis, Osiris, Nephthys, Set and Horus the Elder (not to be confused with Horus, the child of Isis and Osiris).


Rich legacy

Tomb painting of dignitary of ancient Egypt © Our fascination with ancient Egypt is, to a large extent, a product of the vast amount of material information available. We know so much about the daily lives of the ancient Egyptians - we can read their words, meet their families, feel their clothes, taste their food and drink, enter their tombs and even touch their bodies - that it seems that we almost know them. And knowing them, maybe even loving them, we feel that we can understand the very human hopes and fears that dominated their lives.

Some of these myths passed from Egypt to Rome, and have had a direct effect on the development of modern religious belief.

Preserved in their writings and coded into their artwork the Egyptians asked, and answered, the questions that all societies ask. What happens after death? How was the world created? Where does the sun go at night? Lacking any real scientific understanding they answered their own questions with a series of myths and legends designed to explain the otherwise inexplicable.

Some of these myths passed from Egypt to Rome, and have had a direct effect on the development of modern religious belief. Reading and understanding the ancient stories allows us to abandon our modern preconceptions, step outside our own cultural experiences and enter a very different, life-enhancing world.

But, by no means everything about ancient Egypt is fully understood. This lack of certainty over some issues simply adds to the subject's appeal. There are enough unanswered questions - How were obelisks raised? Who was Nefertiti? Where is the lost capital of Itj-Tawi? What exactly are the curious fat cones that élite Egyptian party guests wore on their heads? - and enough published reference books, to allow every Egyptologist, amateur or professional, the hope that he or she might one day solve one of the many outstanding puzzles.


Who Was Sattjeni? Tomb Reveals Secrets About Ancient Egyptian Elite

Two eyes painted on a newly discovered Egyptian coffin seem to stare out from across millennia, conveying the secrets of the ancient Egyptian elite.

The coffin, discovered this year in the necropolis at Qubbet el-Hawa across the Nile River from Aswan, belonged to an important local woman, Sattjeni, daughter of one governor, wife of another and mother of two more, said excavation leader Alejandro Jiménez-Serrano, an Egyptologist at the University of Jaén in Spain.

Sattjeni's mummified body was buried in two cedar coffins made of wood imported from Lebanon. Though the outer coffin had degraded over the nearly 4,000 years since Sattjeni's death, her inner coffin was in excellent condition, according to Egypt's antiquities ministry, which announced the discovery May 24. [See Photos of Sattjeni's Elaborate Burial]

Sattjeni was not a royal, but her family practiced royal strategies to hold on to their governing power: She married her sister's widower, and the family also associated itself with the ram-headed deity Khnum, much as pharaohs intermarried to keep power in the family and claimed to be descended from the gods.

In an email interview with Live Science, Jiménez-Serrano revealed more about the excavations at Qubbet el-Hawa and the life of Sattjeni.

Live Science: Tell us about the excavations at west Aswan. What kinds of artifacts and structures do you find at this site? What was this area used for during the Middle Kingdom (between about 2000 B.C. and 1700 B.C.)?

Jiménez-Serrano: Qubbet el-Hawa is one of the most important nonroyal necropolises of ancient Egypt. Its importance lies in the great quantity and quality of the biographical inscriptions carved in the façades of the funerary complexes. The necropolis was mainly used to bury the highest officials of the nearby town of Elephantine, the capital of the southernmost province of Egypt, at the end of the third millennium and the beginning of the second (2200 B.C. to 1775 B.C). The governors were buried together with their relatives the members of their courts (officials and domestic service) were buried in other smaller and less-decorated tombs. Thus, today, we know the existence of 100 tombs, of which only 80 have been completely cleared.

During the Middle Kingdom, especially during the 12th Dynasty (1950 B.C. to 1775 B.C.), the governors of Elephantine built giant funerary complexes in the necropolis of Qubbet el-Hawa. Some of them are beautifully decorated and have important inscriptions.

Live Science: How did you uncover the burial of Sattjeni? What was that moment like?

Jiménez-Serrano: In 2013, we discovered the upper part of a chamber, which belonged to a tomb that was probably quarried in the Byzantine period (fifth century A.D.). In the walls of this chamber, there was a Christian prayer painted by the Coptics. Thus, we thought that the area was disturbed. However, that chamber at the end was not a chamber, but the beginning of a shaft. During this year, we began the excavation of the shaft, and the more that we excavated, the more we got the sensation that a great discovery might appear . and it appeared!

The worker called me, and I went to the bottom of the shaft, where there was a tiny aperture. With a torch, I could have a look inside, and the first thing that I could see were hieroglyphs. Later, we could determine that those hieroglyphs were on the coffins of the Lady Sattjeni. [Photos: More Than 40 Tombs Discovered in Upper Egypt]

Live Science: Who was Sattjeni, and why was she an important figure?

Jiménez-Serrano: Sattjeni was the second daughter of one of the most important figures of the 12th Dynasty, the governor Sarenput II. Unfortunately, her brother Ankhu died shortly after his father, and there were no male successors. So she and her sister Gaut-Anuket had the rights of the rule in Elephantine. The latter married a certain official called Heqaib and converted him into the new governor of Elephantine: Heqaib II. However, we suspect that Gaut-Anuket did not live much time, because Sattjeni married Heqaib II. They had at least two children, who became the governors of Elephantine successively, as Heqaib III and Ameny-Seneb.

Live Science: What does this discovery tell you about 12th Dynasty society?

Jiménez-Serrano: This discovery shows that the local dynasties of the periphery of the State emulated the royal family. In this concrete case, we can confirm that women were the holders of the dynastic rights. Probably, the members of these families married as the royal family — brother with sister — in order to keep the divine blood "pure." We must not forget that Sattjeni's family declared themselves heirs of a local god.

Live Science: What were the coffins like, and was there anything interesting about their construction or preservation?

Jiménez-Serrano: We are still investigating why the outer coffin was so decayed compared to the inner [one], which was in perfect condition. Both were made with the same foreign wood: cedar from Lebanon. Perhaps the inner coffin was treated with an organic substance that we have not yet detected.


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