Informacije

Lawrence Cotton


Lawrence Cotton rođen je u Blackburnu. Pohađao je Blackburn gimnaziju i počeo raditi u trgovini pamukom 1875. Lawrence i njegov brat, Clement, kasnije su osnovali svoju kompaniju.

Posao je imao veliki uspjeh i 1891. Lawrence Cotton postao je direktor Blackburn Roversa. On je postao predsjednik kluba u martu 1905. Ulaganje Cottona u klub omogućilo je menadžeru Robertu Middletonu da kupi sjajne igrače.

Ubrzo nakon što je Cotton postao predsjedavajući, Middletonov zapaljeni velški međunarodni napadač, Billy Davies iz Wrexhama. Klubu se pridružio i Ellis Crompton, još jedan mladi igrač s reputacijom postizanja golova.

Blackburn Rovers završio je na 9. mjestu u sezoni 1905-06. Adam Bowman je ponovo bio najbolji strijelac kluba sa 15 golova. Njegov štrajkački partner, Billy Davies, dodao je još 11. Robert Middleton potpisao je nekoliko značajnih ugovora te godine, uključujući Jack Martina, Edwina Latherona i Wattie Aitkenhead.

Lawrence Cotton pomogao je prikupiti novac za poboljšanje parka Elwood Park. Dana 1. januara 1907. otvoreno je nedavno izgrađeno postolje Nuttell Street. Mogao je primiti 4.112 pristalica koje su sjedile u gornjem sloju, a prostora za daljnjih 9.320 ljudi stajalo je ispred. Gomila od 35.000 gledala je Blackburn nerešeno 1-1 sa Preston North Endom.

Blackburn Rovers završio je na 12. mjestu u sezoni 1906-07. Izbacili su ih iz FA kupa Tottenham Hotspur, ali su osvojili Lancashire Cup kada su pobijedili Liverpool sa 3-0. Jack Martin se pokazao kao sjajna kupovina i završio je sa 17 golova kao najbolji strijelac kluba.

Sezona 1907-08 bila je vrlo razočaravajuća. Blackburn Rovers je ispao iz FA kupa u prvom kolu kada je poražen od drugoligaša Leicester Fossea. Imali su i izlaz u prvom kolu na Lancashire kupu. Blackburnova ligaška forma bila je nešto bolja i nakon kasnog mitinga završili su na 14. mjestu. Billy Davies, Edwin Latheron i Jack Martin, završili su kao zajednički najbolji strijelci sa po 9 golova.

Novi ugovori Blackburna nisu uspjeli zasjati. Blackburn Times je komentirao: "Drugorazredni igrači mogli bi povoljno biti smanjeni, a tako ušteđeni novac upotrijebljen za isplatu maksimalne plaće prvoklasnim muškarcima."

Robert Middleton imenovao je bivšu zvijezdu Prestona North End -a, Boba Holmesa, za trenera. To je imalo dobar utjecaj na tim jer su osvojili 4. mjesto u sezoni 1908-09. Billy Davies je postigao 19 golova u 27 ligaških nastupa. Ovo je uključivalo četiri gola protiv Bristol Cityja i Evertona. Ellis Crompton (10) i Edwin Latheron (9) dodali su impresivnom broju postignutih golova te sezone. Blackburn je te sezone osvojio i Lancashire Cup i East Lancashire Charity Cup.

Blackburn je nastavio s dobrom formom i sljedeće sezone, a do listopada 1909. postali su vođe Prve lige nogometne lige. Izgubili su svoju poziciju u januaru 1910. i konačno završili na 3. mjestu iza Aston Ville i Liverpoola. Blackburn -ovih 45 bodova bio je najbolji rezultat koji su ikada prikupili u jednoj sezoni.

Odbrana Blackburna bila je izvanredna te sezone. Na golu je bio engleski reprezentativac Jimmy Ashcroft. Bob Crompton i Arthur Cowell bili su strašan bek. George Chapman igrao je na polovini centra, dok su Albert Walmsley i Billy Bradshaw bili krilni igrači. Povreda Billy Daviesa klubu je izazvala ozbiljne probleme pred golom. Wattie Aitkenhead je bio najbolji strijelac sa 14 golova, a dosljedni Edwin Latheron dodao je još 10.

1911. Robert Middleton potpisao je Jocka Simpsona iz Falkirka za naknadu od 1800 funti. Pridružio se liniji koja je u različito doba sezone uključivala Edwina Latherona, Georgea Chapmana, Waltera Anthonyja i Wattieja Aitkenheada. Middleton je takođe potpisao Alfa Robinsona za podršku Jimmyju Ashcroftu. Odbrana je izgledala jako snažno sa igračima kao što su Bob Crompton, Arthur Cowell, Albert Walmsley, Percy Smith i Billy Bradshaw u bokovima.

Sezona 1911-12 počela je loše, a Blackburn Rovers je izgubio dvije od prve tri utakmice. Robert Middleton odlučio je Georgea Chapmana premjestiti iz sredine u sredinu. Ovo je bio veliki uspjeh, a forma Blackburna se postupno popravljala, a tim je krenuo u niz bez poraza koji je trajao tri mjeseca. Ovo ih je dovelo do vrha lige.

Uprkos porazu od Bolton Wanderersa i Arsenala, Blackburn je nastavio još jedan dobar niz i do kraja sezone imali su tri boda više od glavnog izazivača, Evertona. Bio je to prvi put u istoriji Blackburna da su osvojili titulu fudbalske lige. Najbolji strijelci bili su Wattie Aitkenhead (15) i George Chapman (9). Jimmy Ashcroft i Alf Robinson igrali su dobro, a Blackburn je primio samo 43 ligaška gola. Samo je Everton te sezone dao manje golova.

Ulaganje Lawrence Cottona počelo je isplaćivati ​​dividende. Blackburn Rovers je odlično počeo sezonu 1912-13 i bio je neporažen do decembra. Nakon toga uslijedilo je pet uzastopnih poraza. U pokušaju da povrati prvenstvo, Robert Middleton je srušio britanski transfer rekord kupovinom Dannyja Shea iz West Ham Uniteda za 2.000 funti. Patsy Gallagher, opisala je Shea kao "jednog od najvećih umjetnika s loptom koji je ikada igrao za Englesku ... njegova manipulacija loptom bila je zbunjujuća."

Robert Middleton je također kupio još jednog napadača, Joea Hodkinsona za 1.000 funti. Shea je postigao 12 golova, ali to nije bilo dovoljno i Blackburn je te sezone završio na 5. mjestu. Edwin Latheron (14), Wattie Aitkenhead (13), George Chapman (10) bili su drugi najbolji strijelci kluba. Odbrana je igrala dobro i primila je samo 43 gola. Bolje odbrambene rezultate te sezone imao je samo Manchester City.

U julu 1913. Alec Bell, ljevičarski reprezentativac Škotske, pridružio se Blackburnu iz Manchester Uniteda za 1.000 funti. Bell je angažiran kao pokriće za polu-bekovsku liniju Alberta Walmsleyja, Percyja Smitha i Billyja Bradshawa.

Osim što je kupovao vrhunske igrače, Lawrence Cotton je uložio i u poboljšanja terena. Potrošio je 7.000 na novo postolje pored rijeke Darwen. Ovo je omogućilo pokriveni smještaj za oko 12.000 gledalaca.

U sezoni 1913-14 Blackburn Rovers je još jednom osvojio titulu prvaka. Danny Shea je u odličnoj formi postigao 27 golova. Te sezone Edwin Latheron se također dobro snašao sa 13 golova. Obojica su te sezone osvojili i međunarodne nastupe za Englesku. Pridružili su se drugim igračima Blackburna, Billyju Bradshawu, Jocku Simpsonu, Bobu Cromptonu i Joeu Hodkinsonu u engleskom timu. Odbrana je također imala dobre rezultate i te sezone je pustila samo 42 ligaška gola.

Sledeće sezone Blackburn Rovers je ponovo oborio transfer transfer kada je kupio Percy Dawson za 2.500 funti od Heart of Midlothian. Blackburn Rovers je postigao 83 gola u sezoni 1914-15. Međutim, njihova odbrana nije bila tako dobra i Blackburn je završio na trećem mjestu iza prvaka, Evertona. Dawson je bio najbolji strijelac sa 20 golova. Slijedili su ga Edwin Latheron (17), Danny Shea (13), George Chapman (9) i Wattie Aitkenhead (8).

Blackburn Rovers bio je jedan od prvih klubova koji je predložio da se fudbalska liga prekine. Lawrence Cotton je izjavio: "Povući ćemo se na ovaj ili onaj način, a onda ćemo, nakon što se rat završi, pokušati izgraditi ono što smo izgubili. No, za sada je jedino, i jedino, rata. "

Lawrence Cotton postao je gradonačelnik Blackburna 1917. i kao rezultat "sve većeg pritiska građanskih i drugih dužnosti" dao je ostavku na mjesto predsjednika Blackburn Rovera 19. februara 1919.

Lawrence Cotton umro je u maju 1921.


Američka vunena kompanija

Istorija Washington Mills -a
Povijest Washington Mills -a je snimak tekstilne industrije u Lawrenceu. Čini se da je historijsko pitanje kako najbolje iskoristiti kompleks. Ova istorija uključuje masivna ulaganja kapitala koja mijenjaju vlasnike mijenjajući finansijske neuspjehe i sanaciju upotrebe.
Prvobitna građevina bila je Bay State Mills, izgrađena 1846. godine i puštena u rad sljedeće godine. Proizvodili su vunene, karvaste i pamučne proizvode. Zbog finansijskog sloma 1857. godine, mlinovi su zatvoreni, a 1859. godine započeli su reorganizaciju, a korporativni naziv je Washington Mills.

Braća Ayer iz Lowella, MA (koji su zaradili novac u patentnim lijekovima) bili su glavni investitori. 1885. godine Washington Mills je bankrotirao i stavljen je na aukciju. Fred Ayer je kompleks kupio za 328.000 dolara.

U to vrijeme Fred Ayer je srušio stare uske mlinove (neki su bili visoki 9 spratova) i prodao mašine za svotu kupovne cijene! Zatim je izgradio novi kompleks mlinova sa savremenim engleskim i američkim mašinama.

Slabo opremljen za rukovanje tekstilnim operacijama, Ayers je doveo Thomasa Sampsona, koji je zauzvrat doveo Williama Wooda, sina portugalskih imigranata, po početnoj plaći od 1.800,00 dolara godišnje. Upravni odbor izglasao je ukidanje odjeljenja za pamuk i cijeli kompleks posvetio proizvodnji vunenih tkanina.

U godinama koje slijede Wood će postati dio porodice Ayer, udavši se za kćerku Fred Ayer, Ellen, 1888. Do 1895. William Wood je bio blagajnik kompanije. U to vrijeme Kongres je usvojio Wilson -Gormanov akt o tarifama iz 1894. koji je dozvolio da se jeftina strana roba baci na američko tržište - što je dovelo do toga da se nacionalne vunene firme suoče s ekonomskom propašću.

To nije odvratilo Wooda - koji je zahtijevao strogo finansijsko računovodstvo i isto toliko proizvodnje od svojih mašina kao i od svojih radnika (po čemu je opravdano poznatiji). Woodov stil uzrokovao je da Washington Mills funkcionira u crnom.

Do 1890-ih godina konsolidacija je izuzetno porasla, a Woodova ideja bila je konsolidacija mlinova od vune i kamena sa deficitom. Nakon sastanka organizacije u New Yorku u Waldorf Astoriji 1899., rođena je američka vunena kompanija Co.

Ovaj gigantski konglomerat sastojao se od mlinova ne samo iz Lawrencea već i iz Fitchburga, Blackstone 3 Rhode Island i jedne njujorške firme - ukupno 8 mlinova. Proizvodi spojenih mlinova uključivali su mušku odjeću, ženske ogrtače i odjeću za odjeću, otmjene kašmarice, karvaste pređe, pređe sa francuskim predenjem i obična kamena pređa. Washington Mills bio je najstariji, osnovan 1858.
(Roddy, Edward. "Mills, Mansions and Mergers: The Life of William M. Wood. North Andover, MA: Muzej tekstila u dolini Merrimack, 1982.)

Washington Mills, izvorno nazvan Bay State Mills i jedan od prvih mlinova u Lawrenceu, obnovio se rušeći prvobitni mlin i obnavljajući ga na istoj lokaciji, a zatim dodajući nove zgrade. Vodenice su se okretale sa svakim finansijskim usponom i padom - na kraju su zatvarale vrata.

Danas s obnovljenim interesom za rehabilitaciju i očuvanje povijesti - Washington Mills prednjači - očuvanjem ove iznimno važne strukture i dopuštajući joj da ostane relevantna za današnje građane.
Vidi takođe Washington Mills Building No.1: Nagrada za očuvanje


Lawrence Cotton - Povijest

Red Hot Cotton Club Show iz 1930 -ih i#8217 -ih

Pronađen kolut od 16 mm orgije cenzurisanih crnih plesača! It ’s Cotton Club Girls Gone Wild! Najbolje scene su na kraju! Namijenjeno za smeće i nikad nije trebalo biti viđeno! Elegantne djevojke iz crne emisije odbacuju Operu za jazz dok ih zavode vrućom melodijom jazza. Ali to ne staje samo na tome! Uskoro su djevojke napola gole u mraku s muškarcima … WOW WOW !! i onda . pa ne mogu više opisati#8217 ili bi se mogao upaliti! Nikada prije niste vidjeli ovu vrstu akcije iz glavnog streama Holivuda iz 1930 -ih! Toliko je glatko proizveden da je zamalo prošao Hays Code, ali ne i orgiju plesača ” na kraju. Ovde ćete sve videti! Sjajna titula iz 1930 -ih! Sada je vaš red da dobijete CRVENU TOPLU TOPLINU! Zvijezde: Dorothy Salter i Maurice Rocco.

The Cotton Club je bio noćni klub u New Yorku koji se prvo nalazio u kvartu Harlem, a zatim u središtu gradskog kazališta. Klub je djelovao od 1923. do 1940. godine, najviše u doba zabrane Amerike. Klub je bio samo bijelci, iako je u njemu bilo mnogo najboljih crnih zabavljača i jazz muzičara tog doba, uključujući Lenu Horne, Fletcher Henderson, Dukea Ellingtona, Adelaide Hall, grofa Basieja, Bessie Smith, Cab Calloway, braću Nicholas, Lottie Gee, Ella Fitzgerald, Fats Waller, Louis Armstrong, Nat King Cole, Billie Holiday i Ethel Waters. Tokom svog vrhunca, Cotton Club služio je kao mjesto za okupljanje na kojem su se redovno održavale nedjelje redovnih "#8220Svećenih noći" i#8221 na kojima su gostovali slavni gosti poput Jimmyja Durantea, Georgea Gershwina, Sophie Tucker, Paula Robesona, Al Jolsona, Mae West, Richarda Rodgersa, Irving Berlin, Eddie Cantor, Fanny Brice, Langston Hughes, Judy Garland, Moss Hart i gradonačelnik Jimmy Walker, između ostalih.

1920. godine, boksački prvak u teškoj kategoriji Jack Johnson otvorio je Cotton Club pod imenom “Club Deluxe” na uglu 142. ulice i avenije Lenox u srcu okruga Harlem. Owney Madden, istaknuti krijumčar i gangster, preuzeo je klub 1923. godine dok je bio zatvoren u Sing Singu i promijenio ime u Cotton Club. ” Dogovor je postignut između njih dvojice koji je omogućio Johnsonu da i dalje bude menadžer kluba. Madden “ je koristio pamučni štap kao prodajno mjesto za prodaju svog piva broj 1 zabranjenoj gomili. ” (Iako je klub nakratko zatvoren 1925. zbog prodaje pića, ponovo je otvoren bez problema policije). Čovjek po imenu Herman Stark od tada je postao scenski menadžer. Mjesto odabrano za centar Cotton Cluba bilo je idealno. Bila je to velika soba na zadnjem spratu zgrade na Brodveju i Četrdeset osmoj ulici, gde se sastaju Brodvej i Sedma avenija-važna raskrsnica u centru grada, i u srcu Velikog belog puta, Brodvejske pozorišne oblasti. Iako su Herman Stark i vlasnici kluba bili prilično sigurni da će se klub dobro snaći na novoj lokaciji, shvatili su da to ovisi o uspješnoj uvodnoj predstavi.

Pamučni klub je bio osnova samo za bijelce. Klub je reproducirao rasističke slike tog vremena, često prikazujući crnce kao divljake u egzotičnim džunglama ili kao “darove ” na južnoj plantaži. Klub je nametnuo suptilnije boje u boji djevojkama iz zbora koje je klub predstavio u oskudnoj odjeći: od njih se očekivalo da budu "visoke, preplanule i sjajne", što je značilo da moraju biti najmanje 5 stopa 6 inča visok, svijetle puti i mlađi od 21 godine. Boja kože muških plesača bila je raznovrsnija. “Crni izvođači nisu se miješali s klupskom klijentelom, a nakon predstave mnogi od njih otišli su u susjedstvo u podrum nadzornika u 646 Lenox, gdje su pili kukuruzni viski, rakija breskva i marihuana. " Očekivalo se da će Ellington napisati "muziku za džunglu" za publiku bijelaca. Ono što je Ellington dao doprinosu Cotton Clubu je neprocjenjivo i savršeno je sažeto prikazano u ovoj 1937 New York Timesodlomak: “Dotle je empirijski vojvoda i njegova glazba koja stvara pijetlove neka vladaju##8211 i neka se Cotton Club i dalje sjeća da je došao iz Harlema. ” Cijene za kupce bile su visoke pa su izvođači imali vrlo visoke plate. .

Prve godine

Pamučni klub u 125. ulici u New Yorku, decembar 2013.

Ipak, klub je također pomogao u pokretanju karijere Fletchera Hendersona, koji je predvodio prvi bend koji je tamo svirao 1923. godine, i Dukea Ellingtona, čiji je orkestar bio tamošnji bend od 4. decembra 1927. do 30. juna 1931. 1927. godine , prva revija s Dukeom Ellingtonom zvala se ‘Rhythmania ’ i predstavljala je Adelaide Hall, koja je upravo snimila nekoliko pjesama s Ellingtonom, uključujući ‘Creole Love Call ‘. Njihovo snimanje ‘Creole Love Call ‘ postalo je svjetski hit. Klub nije samo dao nacionalnu izloženost Ellingtonu putem radijskih emisija koje su tamo potjecale (prvo putem WHN -a, zatim preko WEAF -a, a nakon rujna 1929. putem NBC Red Network – WEAF je bila vodeća stanica za tu mrežu – petkom), već je omogućio razvio je svoj repertoar stvarajući ne samo plesne melodije za predstave, već i uvertire, prijelaze, pratnju i efekte “jungle ” koji su mu dali slobodu da eksperimentira s orkestralnim bojama i aranžmanima kakvi su rijetko imali gostujući bendovi. Ellington je tokom ove ere snimio preko 100 kompozicija. Na kraju, uvažavajući zahtjev Ellingtona, klub je malo ublažio politiku isključivanja crnih kupaca.

Orkestar Cab Calloway ’s donio je svoje Smeđi šećer reviju u klub 1930., zamijenivši Ellingtonov orkestar nakon njegovog odlaska 1931. bend Jimmie Lunceforda zamijenio je Calloway 1934. godine, dok su se Ellington, Armstrong i Calloway vratili u klub kasnije. Najraskošnija revija u trinaestogodišnjoj povijesti Cotton Cluba otvorena je na Broadwayu 24. septembra 1936. Robinson i Calloway vodili su popis od oko 130 drugih izvođača. Klub je ujedno bio i prva prilika za šoubiznis za Lenu Horne, koja je tamo počela kao pjevačica sa šesnaest godina. Dorothy Dandridge je tamo nastupala dok je još bila jedna od The Dandridge Sisters, dok su Coleman Hawkins i Don Redman tamo igrali kao dio Henderson &# 8217s bend. Tap plesači Bill “Bojangles ” Robinson, Sammy Davis Jr. (u sastavu Will Mastin Trio) i Nicholas Brothers su također glumili tamo.

Klub je takođe crpio iz bijele popularne kulture tog doba. Walter Brooks, koji je producirao uspješnu brodvejsku predstavu Nasumično reproduciraj, bio je nominalni vlasnik. Dorothy Fields i Jimmy McHugh, jedan od najistaknutijih kantautorskih timova tog doba, i Harold Arlen osigurali su pjesme za reviju, od kojih je jedna, “Blackbirds 1928 “, u kojoj je glumila Adelaide Hall u pjesmama “I Can &# 8217t Give You Anything But Love ” i “Diga Diga Doo ”, produkcija Lew Leslie na Broadwayu.

1934. Adelaide Hall glumila je u Cotton Clubu u ‘Cotton Club Parade ’, najvećoj bruto emisiji koja se ikada pojavila u klubu. Izložba je otvorena 11. marta i trajala je osam mjeseci, privukavši preko 600.000 kupaca koji plaćaju. Partituru su napisali Harold Arlen i Ted Koehler, a sadrži klasičnu pjesmu ‘Ill Wind ’. Tokom izvođenja Hall -a#8216Ill Wind ’, radi dodavanja autentičnosti produkciji, mašina za suhi led je korištena na pozornici za stvaranje efekta magle. Bio je to prvi put da se takva oprema koristi na pozornici. Na računu je bila 16-godišnja Lena Horne.

Klub je privremeno zatvoren 1936. godine nakon trkačkih nereda u Harlemu prethodne godine. Fotograf Carl Van Vechten zavjetovao se da će bojkotovati klub zbog takve rasističke politike. Pamučni klub ponovno je otvoren kasnije te godine na Broadwayu i 48. Zapravo 1937 New York Times u članku piše, “Pamučni klub popeo se na Broadway bandwagon, sa predstavom koja je proračunata da kupcima pruži zvuk i boju u vrijednosti njihovog novca - i to je tako. ” Te godine Stark je pristao platiti plesaču tapkanja Bill & #8220Bojangles ” Robinson 3.500 dolara sedmično, najveća plaća ikad isplaćena crnom zabavljaču u brodvejskoj produkciji, i više novca nego što je to ikada bilo ko dobio za nastup u noćnom klubu.

Zatvorila se zauvijek 1940. godine, pod pritiskom viših stanarina, promjenom ukusa i saveznom istragom o utaji poreza od strane vlasnika noćnih klubova na Manhattanu. U svom prostoru otvorio se noćni klub Latinska četvrt, a zgrada je srušena 1989. godine kako bi se napravilo mjesto za hotel. Sve u svemu, Broadway Cotton Club bio je vrlo uspješan spoj starog i novog. Mjesto je možda bilo novo, uređenje je moglo biti malo drugačije, ali jednom kad je ušao patron i udobno sjedio, znao je da se nalazi na poznatom mjestu.

Jazz pisac James Haskins napisao je 1977. godine,##Danas postoji nova inkarnacija Cotton Cluba koji se nalazi na najzapadnijem kraju 125. ulice ispod masivnog vijadukta Manhattanville. Blok zgrade bez prozora ima manje dramatičan prikaz ispred, ali čini se da je popularan među turistima za nedjeljne džez marende. ”

Ostale grane

Čikašku podružnicu Cotton Cluba vodio je Ralph Capone, a podružnica Cotton Cluba na Zapadnoj obali postojala je u Culver Cityju u Kaliforniji krajem 1920 -ih i početkom 1930 -ih, u kojoj su nastupili izvođači iz izvornog Cotton Cluba, poput Armstronga, Callowaya i Ellingtona. Noviji klub otvoren je u Kuala Lumpuru, Malezija.

U popularnoj kulturi

Pamučni klub je film koji je režirao Francis Ford Coppola, a nudi plejbojsku historiju kluba u kontekstu rasnih odnosa 1930 -ih i 8217 -ih te bitki između Maddena, nizozemskog Schultza, Vincenta i#8220Mad Doga ” Coll, Lucky Luciana i Ellsworth “Bumpy ” Johnson. O tome se govori u dokumentarnom filmu Ken Burns PBS iz 2001. Jazz.

Pamučni klub je nakratko prikazan u filmu iz 1997. godine Hoodlum s Laurenceom Fishburneom, Timom Rothom i Andyjem Garciom. Klub, koji posjećuje nizozemski Schultz (Roth), bio je mjesto sukoba između Schultza i Ellsworth “Bumpy ” Johnsona (Fishburne).

Izmišljena verzija kluba, preimenovana u Klub berača pamuka, takođe se pojavljuje u filmu o Jamesu Cagneyju Taxi!.

U spotu za pjesmu iz 1983. “Joanna ” izvođača Kool & amp the Gang nalazi se istoimena Joanna koja se prisjeća svojih dana kao plesačica u Cotton Clubu.

U epizodi hit TV emisije Disney Channel Farma mrava, glavni lik se budi kao Ella Fitzgerald i pjeva u Cotton Clubu.

Poslije ponoći je brodvejska muzička revija iz 2013. o muzici Dukea Ellingtona od#8216 godina u čuvenom noćnom klubu Harlem.


Lawrence Cotton - Povijest

[str. 433] umirovljeni građanin Pulaskog, koji se dugi niz godina uspješno bavio poljoprivredom i stočarstvom u općini Pulaski, a i dalje zadržava svoju farmu od devedeset jutara, rođen je u gradu Pulaski, okrug Lawrence, Pensilvanija, 29. novembra 1831. On je sin Hugha i Diademe (Drake) Cotton.

Hugh Cotton je također rođen u gradu Pulaski i bio je sin Williama Cottona, koji je bio osnivač porodice u ovom odjeljku. William Cotton bio je rodom iz okruga Washington, Pennsylvania. Odatle je došao u okrug Lawrence prije nego što su napravljena mnoga naselja u ovom tada divljem dijelu, te je osigurao 600 jutara zemlje u općini Pulaski, s predumišljajem za svoje potomke. Njegov sin Hugh naslijedio je pravedan dio ove zemlje i živio je na njoj do kraja svog života 1852. Bio je dva puta oženjen i troje njegove djece je i dalje preživjelo, naime: William, Mary D., nastanjeni u Jackvilleu, Pennsylvania, koji je udovica Samuela McBridea i Sarah D., koja je udovica Johna Deana, ranije iz Harlansburga. Sada živi u Slippery Rock, u okrugu Butler. U svom ranom političkom životu, Hugh Cotton je bio vig. Imao je snažan karakter i bio je poznat po svojoj pravdi i dobrotivosti.

William Cotton pohađao je okružne škole kroz djetinjstvo, koje su, uprkos ograničenjima, proizvele muškarce i žene sposobne da dobro odigraju svoje uloge u životu. Takođe je imao privatno poučavanje i, iako je život posvetio aktivnim godinama, isključivo poljoprivredi, vjerovatno bi bio podjednako uspješan i na drugim poljima. Njegova farma od devedeset jutara u gradu Pulaski vrijedna je imovina, zemlja je dobro prilagođena općoj obradi tla i podizanju stoke. Dugi niz godina gospodin Cotton je obrađivao ovu zemlju, ali je 1896. godine svalio teret na mlađa ramena i sa svojom vrijednom suprugom se povukao u Pulaski, gdje uživaju u udobnom domu.

30. aprila 1857. g. Cotton je bio oženjen Elizom A. Kerchoff, rođenom u okrugu Berks, Pennsylvania, kćerkom Daniela i Sarah (Moreland) Kerchoff. Daniel Kerchoff bio je njemačkog porijekla, ali je rođen u okrugu Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Njegova supruga imala je engleske pretke, ali je rođena u okrugu Chester. 1850. Kerchoffovi su došli iz Berksa u okrug Lawrence i smješteni u Novom dvorcu, gdje su umrli i Daniel Kerchoff i njegova supruga. Preživjelo je petero njihove djece, i to: Reuben, nastanjen u New Castle Mary, udovica Philipa Altenderfera, nastanjena u Reading Sarah, udovica Jamesa Chambersa, nastanjena u New Castleu Eliza A., supruga Williama Cottona, i Rebecca, koja je udovica Josepha Cubbisona, nastanjena u New Castleu. Williamu Cottonu i supruzi rođeno je šestero djece, i to: Jesse L., bivši pastor prezbiterijanske crkve u Coraopolisu u Pensilvaniji, zauzima katedru hebrejskog jezika na Univerzitetu Princeton, kao čovjek sjajnih postignuća Rhoda M., koja je supruga Williama M. Webba, poznatog advokata u Akronu, Ohio Samuel R., sa prebivalištem u gradu Pulaski, i tri preminula.

U politici, gospodin Cotton je dosljedno podržavao kandidate Republikanske stranke. On je čovjek izraženih principa umjerenosti i uvijek daje svoj utjecaj da pomogne u donošenju zakona o ovoj temi. Sa suprugom pripada Prezbiterijanskoj crkvi u Pulaskom, u kojoj je vladajući starješina. 30. aprila 1907. proslavljena je zlatna godišnjica vjenčanja gospodina i gospođe Cotton, i to je bila vrlo zanimljiva prilika.

Povijest 20. stoljeća Novog dvorca i okruga Lawrence u Pensilvaniji i reprezentativni građani Hon. Aaron L. Hazen Richmond-Arnold Publishing Company, Chicago, Ill., 1908


Evidencija Lawrence Manufacturing Company

Zbirka, koja je izuzetno kompletna, uključuje poslovne knjige, evidenciju proizvodnje i prodaje, platne spiskove i korespondenciju. Od najvećeg interesa je prepiska, posebno pisma blagajnika i agenta, polugodišnji izvještaji o prodaji direktorima i platnim spiskovima. Blagajnik i agent bili su u svakodnevnoj komunikaciji putem pisma, a ova prepiska pruža bogat zapis o aktivnostima kompanije. U prepisci blagajnika zastupljeni su Henry Hall, Henry V. Ward, Thomas Jefferson Coolidge, L. M. Sargent i C. P. Baker. Prepiska agenata uključuje pisma Williama Austina, Johna Aikena, Williama S. Southwortha, Williama F. Salmona, Daniel Husseyja, Johna Kilburna, Franklina Noursea i E. H. Walkera. Postoji i mnogo pisama do i od prodajnih agenata, posebno Townsend i Yale (kasnije E. M. Townsend & amp Co). Evidencija o platnom spisku sadrži zapise za svaki mlin, kao i opšte evidencije o platnim spiskovima. Oni takođe uključuju registar imena i evidenciju osiguranja od odgovornosti.

Istraživači bi trebali imati na umu da se u mnogim slučajevima opća korespondencija, iako podnesena abecednim redom u roku od jedne godine, može podnijeti ili pod imenom firme koju predstavlja pismo ili od osobe koja je potpisala pismo. Na primjer, pisma vlasnika brava i kanala 1870 -ih i 1880 -ih podnose se na ime agenta kompanije James Francis, koji je potpisao pisma sa svojim ličnim imenom, ali pisma iz kompanije Appleton, Amory & amp Co. koja su potpisana sa imenom preduzeća su evidentirani pod imenom preduzeća.

Vaučeri, čekovne knjižice, fakture, izvještaji o tkaninama i čarapama, teretnice, otkazani čekovi, poništeni certifikati o dionicama, nalozi za dividende i izvještaji o kupovini pamuka koji se odnose na godine 1870-1910 uzorkovani su u intervalima od 10 godina.

Dodatni opis

Istorijska bilješka:

Kompanija Lawrence Manufacturing Company, u Lowell -u, Massachusetts, osnovana je 1831. godine, a počela je s radom 1833. Tvrtka je u početku proizvodila majice, folije i tkanine za tisak, ali je 1864. dodala i proizvodnju pletenih proizvoda, poput čarapa i donjeg rublja.

Osnivanje kompanije slijedilo je obrazac drugih mlinova koji su osnovani u Lowellu u prethodnoj deceniji. Bostonski biznismeni Nathan Appleton i Patrick Tracy Jackson prepoznali su da vodopadi Pawtucket na rijeci Merrimack, koja se nalazi u rijetko naseljenom području istočnog Chelmsforda, predstavljaju glavni izvor vodene energije koja se može iskoristiti za profit. Godine 1821. Appleton i Jackson, sa grupom investitora, osnovani su kao vlasnici brava i kanala na rijeci Merrimack. Oni su kupili pravo na zemljište i vodu na tom području. Oni koji ulažu u mlin otkupili bi zemljište i potom uzeli vodu u zakup od vlasnika brava i kanala. Često su, naravno, ulagači u mlin i vlasnici brava i kanala bili isti. East Chelmsford je osnovan kao grad Lowell 1826.

Do 1831. godine u Lowellu je radilo sedam mlinova. Vjerujući da u tekstilnoj industriji i dalje postoji prostor za rast, ista grupa poduzetnika nastojala je otvoriti još jednu mlinicu. Kao i do sada, bili su spremni uložiti veći dio kapitala u novu tvornicu pamuka ako bi se mogli pronaći kompetentni ljudi koji će voditi posao. Pristupili su braća i poslovni partneri Amos i Abbott Lawrence, uspješni bostonski trgovci koji su također ulagali u mlinove Suffolk i Tremont. Prihvatili su ponudu, ne samo zbog toga što bi njihova firma A. & amp. A. Lawrence time postala stalni zastupnici za prodaju grupe mlinova, čime bi uvelike proširili svoje domaće poslovanje s pamukom.

Organizacija i radna politika Lawrence Manufacturing -a bile su reprezentativne za druge mlinove u Lowellu. Upravni odbor od sedam ljudi kontrolisao je kompaniju iz kancelarije u Bostonu, postavljajući politike i donoseći odluke. Rizničar, koji je bio član odbora, kupovao je, plaćao račune i upravljao svakodnevnim poslovima korporacije. Blagajniku je bio podređen agent mlina, sa sjedištem u Lowellu, koji je živio u kući u vlasništvu kompanije, a koji je bio u potpunosti zadužen za mlinove i pansione. Posle 1844. godine agent mlina je takođe vodio računa o platnom spisku i rutinskim fabričkim troškovima.

Lawrence Manufacturing je držala svoja skladišta za pamuk u New Orleansu, Bostonu i Lowellu do 1850. Tada je skladište u New Orleansu prodano i pamuk je isporučen direktno u Boston čim je kupljen.

Odlučni da izbjegnu ozloglašeno teške uslove u engleskim tekstilnim gradovima, osnivači Lowell mlinova uspostavili su sistem osmišljen da privuče „respektabilnu“ radnu snagu sastavljenu prvenstveno od mladih žena iz ruralne Nove Engleske. Lovrenovi mlinovi ličili su na druge mlinove u Lowellu po tome što su imali pretežno žensku radnu snagu. Na primjer, 1840. godine Lawrence je zapošljavao 1290 žena i samo 200 muškaraca. Većina Lorensovih samačkih žena operativki, poput drugih Lowell-ovih „djevojčica iz mlina“, živjele su u pansionima u vlasništvu kompanije i na radnom mjestu ili van njega bile su vezane propisima koji su ih držali na moralnom nivou. Samci su takođe živeli u pansionima, dok su oženjeni muškarci sa porodicama živeli u stanovima u vlasništvu preduzeća. Početkom 1840 -ih i 1850 -ih broj imigranata zaposlenih u Lowell mlinovima uvelike se povećao. U početku su imigranti bili uglavnom Irci. Kasnije je veliki broj francuskih kanadskih, poljskih, portugalskih i grčkih imigranata, muškaraca i žena, došao u Lowell tražeći posao. Osim toga, cijele porodice Jenkija dolazile su u Lowell u sve većem broju. Za razliku od slobodnih žena koje su došle iz ruralnih područja raditi u mlinovima godinu ili dvije prije povratka kući, porodične grupe, imigrantkinje ili Jenkije, učinile su Lowell svojim novim domom. Not surprisingly, they tended to live as family or ethnic units and were not inclined to live in tightly regulated company housing. Over the course of the nineteenth century unmarried operatives temporarily living and working in Lowell became an ever-smaller proportion of the labor force. More and more of the mill workers were members of families who had settled permanently in Lowell. The boarding houses were used less and less and were finally sold by the corporations around the turn of the twentieth century.

Lawrence Manufacturing was affected by economic fluctuations, closing wholly or in part at least three times before the Civil War. In 1862 nine mills in Lowell, including Lawrence, anticipated a shortage of cotton from the south for the duration of the Civil War and shut down entirely. Ten thousand mill workers, approximately 1600 of whom worked for Lawrence, were thrown out of work. Lawrence Manufacturing reopened early in 1864, adding hosiery and underwear manufacture to the production of cotton.

By 1865 both Amos and Abbott Lawrence had died, and the firms of George C. Richardson and Company and R. M. Bailey and Company were the selling agents for Lawrence Manufacturing. Townsend and Yale (later E. M. Townsend and Company) replaced R. M. Bailey and Company in 1866 as the selling agents for shirts, drawers and woolen hosiery.

Like the other Lowell textile firms, Lawrence Manufacturing was adversely affected by a number of factors in the decades following the Civil War. Despite expanded production due to the introduction of steam power (inaugurated at Lawrence in 1871), Lowell was no longer preeminent among cotton manufacturing cities. Increased labor trouble, the rise of New Bedford and Fall River as textile manufacturing centers, and economic shifts all contributed to the slow decline of the Lowell textile industry. In 1896 Lawrence responded to changing conditions by abandoning the manufacture of woven cotton cloth, their original product, to concentrate on the previously supplemental line of knitted hosiery and underwear.

Despite a brief upswing during World War I, increasing competition from Southern textile concerns took a continuing toll on Northern mills, including Lawrence Manufacturing. In 1926 the assets of the company were sold to Stevens and Son of North Andover, Massachusetts. The mills continued to operate as a subsidiary of a larger concern into the 1980’s.


The True Story of Lawrence of Arabia

Sipping tea and chain-smoking L&M cigarettes in his reception tent in Mudowarra, Sheik Khaled Suleiman al-Atoun waves a hand to the outside, in a generally northern direction. “Lawrence came here, you know?” he says. “Several times. The biggest time was in January of 1918. He and other British soldiers came in armored cars and attacked the Turkish garrison here, but the Turks were too strong and they had to retreat.” He pulls on his cigarette, before adding with a tinge of civic pride: “Yes, the British had a very hard time here.”

Srodni sadržaj

While the sheik was quite correct about the resiliency of the Turkish garrison in Mudowarra—the isolated outpost held out until the final days of World War I—the legendary T.E. Lawrence’s “biggest time” there was open to debate. In Lawrence’s own telling, that incident occurred in September 1917, when he and his Arab followers attacked a troop train just south of town, destroying a locomotive and killing some 70 Turkish soldiers.

The southernmost town in Jordan, Mudowarra was once connected to the outside world by means of that railroad. One of the great civil-engineering projects of the early 20th century, the Hejaz Railway was an attempt by the Ottoman sultan to propel his empire into modernity and knit together his far-flung realm.

By 1914, the only remaining gap in the line was located in the mountains of southern Turkey. When that tunneling work was finished, it would have been theoretically possible to travel from the Ottoman capital of Constantinople all the way to the Arabian city of Medina, 1,800 miles distant, without ever touching the ground. Instead, the Hejaz Railway fell victim to World War I. For nearly two years, British demolition teams, working with their Arab rebel allies, methodically attacked its bridges and isolated depots, quite rightly perceiving the railroad as the Achilles’ heel of the Ottoman enemy, the supply line linking its isolated garrisons to the Turkish heartland.

In desert war, Lawrence advised, get to know “clans and tribes, friends and enemies, wells, hills and roads” (Turkish fort ruins in Jordan). (Ivor Prickett) Sheik al-Atoun recalls family tales of Lawrence’s exploits. “He was an expert in demolitions,” al-Atoun says, “and taught my grandfather how it was done.” (Ivor Prickett) Capturing Aqaba was Lawrence’s great triumph: “The enemy,” he wrote, “had never imagined attack from the interior” (above, Aqaba today, the Red Sea port in Jordan). (Ivor Prickett) Lawrence (in traditional garb, 1919) was caught between rebels seeking pan-Arab independence and Western powers’ designs on the Mideast. (Private Collection / Peter Newark Military Pictures / Bridgeman Images) After Lawrence’s crash 200 yards from his cottage (above), the surgeon who tried to save his life, Hugh Cairns, developed crash helmets for motorcyclists. (Alex Masi) A swimmer finds relief from the stifling Arabian heat in the Red Sea in the coastal city of Aqaba, Jordan. (Ivor Prickett) The only seaport of Jordan, Aqaba, on the northeastern tip of the Red Sea, is known today for its beaches and commercial activities. (Ivor Prickett) A shopper examines produce at a market in Aqaba. Lawrence’s crucial battle for Aqaba occurred 40 miles north of the city. (Ivor Prickett) Tourists snap photos of “Lawrence’s camp,” in Wadi Rum, which the British officer passed through during World War I. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) A Bedouin man herds tourist camels across the desert through Wadi Rum, site of the Arab Revolt of 1917-18. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) Storm clouds roll into the Dead Sea valley near the city of Wadi Musa. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) As a boy, Abu Enad Daraoush and his friends found remains of Turkish forces at Aba el Lissan—“Bones everywhere,” he recalls, “skulls and ribs and spines.” (Ivor Prickett) Storm clouds roll into the Dead Sea valley near the city of Wadi Musa. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) Once the site of bloodshed, Aba el Lissan, Jordan, saw T.E .Lawrence and his rebel fighters slaughter hundreds of Turkish soldiers in 1917. (Ivor Prickett) Writer Scott Anderson explores the crumbling ruins of southern Jordan’s Turkish forts. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) Ottoman forts and outposts have fallen to ruin in southern Jordan near the route of the old Hejaz Railway. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) A window in what was once a Turkish fort overlooks a desolate desert landscape near the Hejaz Railway. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) T.E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”) is immortalized in a portrait at Clouds Hill, his former home near Wool, Dorset County, England. (Alex Masi) Turkish trenches, remembrances of the war, scar the landscape in Jordan. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) A life catalogued in pictures: T.E. Lawrence’s career is captured in photographs on display in Clouds Hill. (Alex Masi) “There is no other man I know who could have achieved what Lawrence did.” Echoing Gen. Edmund Allenby’s sentiments, pictures pay homage to the life of “Lawrence of Arabia” at Clouds Hill. (Alex Masi) Before his death, Lawrence retreated to Clouds Hill, a simple cottage in the foothills of southwest England, now open to the public. (Alex Masi) Clouds Hill holds many artifacts from Lawrence’s life, including a gramophone and a painting that once belonged to him. (Alex Masi)

One of the most prolific of the British attackers was a young army officer named T.E. Lawrence. By his count, Lawrence personally blew up 79 bridges along the railway, becoming so adept that he perfected a technique of leaving a bridge “scientifically shattered”—ruined but still standing. Turkish crews then faced the time-consuming task of dismantling the wreckage before repairs could begin.

By war’s end, damage to the railway was so extensive that much of it was abandoned. In Jordan today, the line runs only from the capital city of Amman to a point 40 miles north of Mudowarra, where a modern spur veers off to the west. Around Mudowarra, all that is left is the raised berm and gravel of the rail bed, along with remnants of culverts and station houses destroyed nearly a century ago. This trail of desolation stretches south 600 miles to the Saudi Arabian city of Medina in the Arabian Desert there still sit several of the war-mangled train cars, stranded and slowly rusting away.

One who laments the loss is Sheik al-Atoun, Mudowarra’s leading citizen and a tribal leader in southern Jordan. As one of his sons, a boy of about 10, constantly refills our teacups in the reception tent, the sheik describes Mudowarra as a poor and remote area. “If the railway still existed,” he says, “it would be very different. We would be connected, both economically and politically to north and south. Instead, there is no development here, and Mudowarra has always stayed a small place.”

The sheik was aware of a certain irony in his complaint, given that his grandfather worked alongside T.E. Lawrence in sabotaging the railroad. “Of course, at that time,” al-Atoun says ruefully, “my grandfather thought that these destructions were a temporary matter because of the war. But they actually became permanent.”

Today, T.E. Lawrence remains one of the most iconic figures of the early 20th century. His life has been the subject of at least three movies—including one considered a masterpiece—over 70 biographies, several plays and innumerable articles, monographs and dissertations. His wartime memoir, Seven Pillars of Wisdom, translated into more than a dozen languages, remains in print nearly a full century after its first publication. As Gen. Edmund Allenby, chief British commander in the Middle East during World War I, noted, Lawrence was first among equals: “There is no other man I know,” he asserted, “who could have achieved what Lawrence did.”

Part of the enduring fascination has to do with the sheer improbability of Lawrence’s tale, of an unassuming young Briton who found himself the champion of a downtrodden people, thrust into events that changed the course of history. Added to this is the poignancy of his journey, so masterfully rendered in David Lean’s 1962 film, Lawrence of Arabia, of a man trapped by divided loyalties, torn between serving the empire whose uniform he wore and being true to those fighting and dying alongside him. It is this struggle that raises the Lawrence saga to the level of Shakespearean tragedy, as it ultimately ended badly for all concerned: for Lawrence, for the Arabs, for Britain, in the slow uncoiling of history, for the Western world at large. Loosely cloaked about the figure of T.E. Lawrence there lingers the wistful specter of what might have been if only he had been listened to.

For the past several years, Sheik al-Atoun has assisted archaeologists from Bristol University in England who are conducting an extensive survey of the war in Jordan, the Great Arab Revolt Project (GARP). One of the Bristol researchers, John Winterburn, recently discovered a forgotten British Army camp in the desert 18 miles from Mudowarra untouched for nearly a century—Winterburn even collected old gin bottles—the find was touted in the British press as the discovery of “Lawrence’s Lost Camp.”

“We do know that Lawrence was at that camp,” Winterburn says, sitting at a Bristol University café. “But, as best we can tell, he probably stayed only a day or two. But all the men who were there much longer, none of them were Lawrence, so it becomes ‘Lawrence’s camp.’”

For most travelers, Highway 15, Jordan’s main north-south thoroughfare, offers a dull drive through a largely featureless desert connecting Amman to more interesting places: the ruins at Petra, the Red Sea beaches of Aqaba.

To GARP co-director Nicholas Saunders, however, Highway 15 is a treasure trove. “Most people have no idea that they’re traveling through one of the best-preserved battlefields in the world,” he explains, “that all around them are reminders of the pivotal role this region played in World War I.”

Saunders is at his desk in his cluttered office at Bristol, where scattered amid the stacks of papers and books are relics from his own explorations along Highway 15: bullet casings, cast-iron tent rings. Since 2006, Saunders has headed up some 20 GARP digs in southern Jordan, excavating everything from Turkish Army encampments and trenchworks, to Arab rebel campsites and old British Royal Flying Corps airstrips. What unites these disparate sites—indeed what led to their creation—is the single-track railway that runs alongside Highway 15 for some 250 miles: the old Hejaz Railway.

As first articulated by T.E. Lawrence, the goal wasn’t to permanently sever the Turks’ southern lifeline, but rather to keep it barely functioning. The Turks would have to constantly devote resources to its repair, while their garrisons, receiving just enough supplies to survive, would be stranded. Indications of this strategy are everywhere evident along Highway 15 while many of the original small bridges and culverts that the Ottomans constructed to navigate the region’s seasonal waterways are still in place—instantly recognizable by their ornate stonework arches—many more are of modern, steel-beam construction, denoting where the originals were blown up during the war.

The GARP expeditions have produced an unintended consequence. Jordan’s archaeological sites have long been plundered by looters—and this has now extended to World War I sites. Fueled by the folkloric memory of how Turkish forces and Arab rebels often traveled with large amounts of gold coins—Lawrence himself doled out tens of thousands of English pounds’ worth of gold in payments to his followers—locals quickly descend on any newly discovered Arab Revolt site with spades in hand to start digging.

“So of course, we’re part of the problem,” Saunders says. “The locals see all these rich foreigners digging away,” Saunders adds wryly, “on our hands and knees all day in the hot sun, and they think to themselves, ‘No way. No way are they doing this for some old bits of metal they’re here to find the gold.’”

As a result, GARP archaeologists remain on a site until satisfied that they’ve found everything of interest, and then, with the Jordanian government’s permission, take everything with them when closing down the site. From past experience, they know they’re likely to discover only mounds of turned earth upon their return.

Set amid rolling brown hills given over to groves of orange and pistachio trees, the village of Karkamis has the soporific feel of many rural towns in southern Turkey. On its slightly rundown main street, shopkeepers gaze vacantly out at deserted sidewalks, while in a tiny, tree-shaded plaza, idled men play dominoes or cards.

If this seems a peculiar setting for the place where a young Lawrence first came to his appreciation of the Arab world, the answer actually lies about a mile east of the village. There, on a promontory above a ford of the Euphrates sits the ruins of the ancient city of Carchemish. While human habitation on that hilltop dates back at least 5,000 years, it was a desire to unlock the secrets of the Hittites, a civilization that reached its apogee in the 11th century B.C., that first brought a 22-year-old Lawrence here in 1911.

Even before Carchemish, there were signs that the world might well hear of T.E. Lawrence in some capacity. Born in 1888, the second of five boys in an upper-middle-class British family, his almost-paralyzing shyness masked a brilliant mind and a ferocious independent streak.

About Scott Anderson

Scott Anderson is a former war correspondent and the author of seven books including The Man who Tried to Save the World, Triage, War Zones and his acclaimed biography Lawrence in Arabia, which won the 2013 National Book Critics Circle Award. Anderson is a frequent contributor to the New York Times Magazine, Esquire, GQ, Men's Journal i Vanity Fair. Photo by Robert Clark.


17 gorgeous Alabama mansions lost to history

After writing recently about some of the most beautiful buildings we’ve demolished in Alabama, some readers asked me about homes we’ve lost. I put together this list of 17 once-gorgeous mansions that are no longer standing, the victims of either demolition or fire. After the initial home, the unique Vestavia Estate, the houses are listed in alphabetical order.

1. Vestavia Estate, ca. 1920s, Birmingham

This unusual circular home in Birmingham was inspired by a Roman Temple. Called Vestavia, it was built atop Shades Mountain by Dr. George Ward in the 1920s as a country house. Vestavia was 70 feet high and 186 feet in circumference and featured "20 columns, each 9 feet in circumference, according to Bham Wiki. It was the centerpiece of a 20-acre estate that included gardens and a replica of the Sybil Temple. The area surrounding the site of the estate is now called Vestavia Hills and is marked by Ward's Sybil Temple, which was relocated to a hill along U.S. Highway 31."

(Source: Alabama Department of Archives and History)

Ward, a former mayor of Birmingham, intended his temple replica on the property as his mausoleum but when he died in 1940, a city ordinance prevented his burial on the grounds so he was interred in Elmwood Cemetery. The property was sold to Vestavia Hills Baptist Church in 1958 and for a time acted as part of the church. The unique building was demolished in the late 1960s.

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

2. Bestor House, 1882, Mobile

The home built in 1882 in Mobile by attorney Daniel Perrin Bestor Jr. was known for its detailed iron work. The brick mansion was located on the northeast corner of Government and Joachim streets. It has a decorative tower on the third floor. It was demolished in the 1930s.

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

Another view of the Bestor House in Mobile.

(Source: Alabama Department of Archives and History)

3. Crocheron Mansion, 1847, Dallas County

A mansion built by Richard Conner Crocheron was located in Cahaba, the state's first capital city, now known as Old Cahawba Archaeological site. The home, built in 1847, burned in the early 1900s, leaving some of the columns, called the "Crocheron Columns." The columns likely survived because they were made of custom-shaped bricks, according to the Encyclopedia of Alabama, and could not be used to build other structures. Confederate Gen. Nathan Bedford Forest and Union Gen. James Wilson discussed an exchange of prisoners captured during the Battle of Selma at the house, according to ExploreSouthernHistory.com.

The ruins of the Crocheron Mansion in Cahaba.

(Source: Alabama Department of Archives and History)

4. Dicksonia Plantation, c. 1830, Lowndesboro

Construction of Dicksonia Plantation was begun in 1830 by David White. It was built as a one-story home but it was extensively remodeled in 1856 by its second owner Wiley Turner. That home, built of wood, burned in 1939 and was replaced by near-replica thought to be fireproof. The home made of cast-concrete and steel was completed 1940 but it also burned in 1964. See photos of its ruins, which are on private property, at AlabamaHeritage.com.

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

5. Emanuel Mansion, 1836, Mobile

The home of Jonathan Emanuel was built in 1836 at 251 Government St. in Mobile. According to the Facebook page Historic Photographs of Southwest Alabama, the three-story, Greek Revival-style mansion was designed by James Gallier, “the famous architect who was designing many of Mobile's structures at this time. Architectural scholars consider it to have been one of Alabama's "most outstanding early urban residences.” The home was demolished in 1936. The site is now occupied by the Admiral Semmes Hotel.

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

Inside Emanuel Mansion in Mobile.

(Source: Photos of Rural Southwest Alabama Facebook page)

6. Forest Hall, 1857, Marion

Forest Hall was built in 1857 in Perry County and burned in the early 1900s. According to the Facebook page Historic Photos of Southwest Alabama, "This grand two-story Italianate style mansion, with a four-story tower, was built by Leonidas N. Walthall. Walthall was the brother-in-law of Edward Kenworthy Carlisle, builder of Kenworthy Hall. It stood near Kenworthy Hall, across the road on a hill on the south side of Alabama Highway 14/Green Street."

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

7. Forks of Cypress, 1830, Florence

The Greek Revival mansion called Forks of Cypress was designed by architect William Nichols for James and Sally Moore Jackson. Completed in 1830, the home was the only Greek Revival house in Alabama to feature a two-story colonnade around all four sides that was composed of 24 columns. The Lauderdale County home was struck by lightning and burned in 1966. Today, only the columns remain and they are located on private property. The owners allow tours by appointment.

(Source: Carol Highsmith/Library of Congress)

Ruins of Forks of Cypress today.

(Photo of The Grove edited to remove aging/Huntsville-Madison County Public Library)

8. The Grove, c. 1815, Huntsville

The Grove was built in Madison County as early as 1815 by Huntsville founder Leroy Pope, according to historian Henry Turner. The mansion on the corner of Gallatin and Williams streets was the largest home in the state when it was completed. Originally, the estate encompassed 33 acres. It was owned by Gen. Bartley Martin Lowe, a cotton broker and bank president known as the "merchant prince" of Huntsville from 1839-1844. Local historian Jacque Reeves said The Grove was dismantled in the 1920s because "descendants could no longer afford to maintain it and they could not stand to see anyone else live in it." The property was still owned by descendants until the 1970s when it was sold to the Huntsville housing Authority. The Grove was the first residence Gen. Ormsby Mitchell took over when his troops occupied Huntsville during the Civil War.

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

9. Dr. William Hughes home, 1845, Aliceville

According to the Wikipedia page "List of Plantations in Alabama," this home was built from 1845–50, and featured elaborate plaster work on its interior. The Pickens County home was demolished in 1939. It is shown here in the mid-1930s.


NJ teacher cleared for slavery lesson that allegedly included cotton picking, whip-cracking noises

A New Jersey middle school teacher has been cleared of any improper behavior after a controversial lesson on slavery that allegedly included students pretending to be slaves picking cotton while he made whip-cracking noises in the classroom.

Lawrence Cuneo, an eighth grade social studies teacher at Toms River Intermediate School East, was cleared by district officials late Thursday after an investigation was launched following a student’s social media post, The Ashbury Park Press reported.

“The district has concluded its investigation into a complaint alleging that an Intermediate East 8th-grade social studies lesson on slavery was ‘degrading’ to students,” district spokesman Michael Kenny said. “We have determined that it was not teacher Lawrence Cuneo’s intention to offend his students rather, the purpose of the instruction was that this appalling but nevertheless real facet of our nation’s history more fully resonate with students.”

Kenny added that the administrators are working with Cuneo and other teachers to “revisit the delivery of instruction” to ensure lessons about slavery are mindful of students’ sensitives.

A student took to social media earlier this week to accuse Cuneo of teaching a “degrading” lesson on slavery, claiming that classmates were forced to "pick cotton and lay" on a dirty floor while "pretending we were slaves."

Cuneo, who is also the mayor of Pine Beach, was accused of making “cracking” whip noises and kicking students’ feet, according to the student's post obtained by the outlet.

"It's good to be informed about slavery but making us clean and pick cotton and pretending to wip [sic] us? Are you nuts it's 2020 not 1800 get it right," the student wrote.

Parents and students defended Cuneo in comments to Patch.com and said the description of the lesson was misleading.

Lisa Nuernberg said her child, who was in the class with the student who made the complaint online, said it was described as a “fun learning experience” that “got them up and out of their seats.”

"There was never, ever kicking or any type of violence," Nuernberg said. "It wasn't promoting racism of any sort."

Former students said the classroom activity was optional and sought to teach them about how slaves were held in slave ships.

Treniti DeBruycker, a freshman at Toms River East who had the class with Cuneo last year, said the teacher asked for volunteers who would be comfortable participating in the activity.

"He would tell us this is how they were transported [to America] and he would explain how they were treated," she said. "He brought in freshly picked cotton that had seeds, and had us separate the seeds and sticks and debris. It had to be as clean as possible," DeBruycker said, clarifying that Cuneo would point out if it was not.

Techniques educators have used to teach lessons on slavery have come under scrutiny in recent years for being insensitive, particularly toward students of color.


Lawrence Cotton - History

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County Information
Established January 16, 1821

Named for Captain James Lawrence, Commander of the "Chesapeake", who was mortally wounded in an engagement between that vessel and the British vessel, "Shannon", during the War of 1812.

Present area, or parts of it, formerly included in:

1816–1821 - Crawford
1815–1819 - Edwards
1812–1815 - Gallatin
1812–1815 - Madison
1809–1812 - Randolph
1790–1809 - Knox, Northwest Territory

Povijest županije
Source: "Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois", ©1901

LAWRENCE COUNTY - one of the eastern counties in the "southern tier," originally a part of Edwards, but separated from the latter in 1821, and named for Commodore Lawrence. In 1900 its area was 360 square miles, and its population, 16,523. The first English speaking settlers seem to have migrated from the colony at Vincennes, Ind.

St. Francisville, in the southeastern portion, and Allison prairie, in the northeast, were favored by the American pioneers. Settlement was more or less desultory until after the War of 1812. Game was abundant and the soil productive. About a dozen Negro families found homes, in 1819, near Lawrenceville, and a Shaker colony was established about Charlottesville the same year. Among the best remembered pioneers are the families of Lautermann, Chubb, Kincaid, Buchanan and Laus -- the latter having come from South Carolina. Toussaint Dubois, a Frenchman and father of Jesse K. Dubois, State Auditor (1857-64), was a large land proprietor at an early day, and his house was first utilized as a court house. The county is richer in historic associations than in populous towns. Lawrencville, the county-seat, was credited with 865 inhabitants by the census of 1890. St. Francisville and Sumner are flourishing towns.

LAWRENCEVILLE - the county-seat of Lawrence County, is situated on the Embarras River, at the intersection of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railways, 9 miles west of Vincennes, Ind., and 139 miles east of St. Louis. It has a courthouse, four churches, a grade school and two weekly newspapers. Population in 1890 was 865 In 1900 - 1,300 (1903, est.) 1,600.

Townships of Lawrence County


ALLISON TOWNSHIP
(Name changed from Thompson on April 10, 1857)

BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP
(Formed from Christy on September 10, 1872)

CHRISTY TOWNSHIP
(Name changed from Hardin on April 10, 1857)

LUKIN TOWNSHIP
(Name changed from Marion (probably 1857)

PETTY TOWNSHIP
(Name changed from Perry to Ohio on April 10, 1857 and from Ohio to Petty (date unknown).


New World Cotton

Among the American species, G. hirsutum was apparently cultivated first in Mexico, and G. barbadense later in Peru. However, a minority of researchers believe, alternatively, that the earliest type of cotton was introduced into Mesoamerica as an already domesticated form of G. barbadense from coastal Ecuador and Peru.

Whichever story ends up to be correct, cotton was one of the first non-food plants domesticated by the prehistoric inhabitants of the Americas. In the Central Andes, especially in the north and central coasts of Peru, cotton was part of a fishing economy and a marine-based lifestyle. People used cotton to make fishing nets and other textiles. Cotton remains have been recovered in many sites on the coast especially in residential middens.

Gossypium Hirsutum(Upland Cotton)

The oldest evidence of Gossypium hirsutum in Mesoamerica comes from the Tehuacan valley and has been dated between 3400 and 2300 BCE. In different caves of the region, archaeologists affiliated to the project of Richard MacNeish found remains of fully domesticated examples of this cotton.

Recent studies have compared bolls and cotton seeds retrieved from excavations in Guila Naquitz Cave, Oaxaca, with living examples of wild and cultivated G. hirsutum punctatum growing along the east coast of Mexico. Additional genetic studies (Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge and Lacape 2014) support the earlier results, indicating that G. hirsutum was likely originally domesticated in the Yucatán Peninsula. Another possible center of domestication for G. hirsutum is the Caribbean.

In different eras and among different Mesoamerican cultures, cotton was a highly demanded good and a precious exchange item. Maya and Aztec merchants traded cotton for other luxury items, and nobles adorned themselves with woven and dyed mantles of the precious material. Aztec kings often offered cotton products to noble visitors as gifts and to army leaders as payment.

Gossypium Barbadense (Pima Cotton)

G. barbadense cultivars are known for their production of high-quality fiber and called variously Pima, Egyptian, or Sea Island cotton. The first clear evidence of domesticated Pima cotton comes from the Ancón-Chillón area of the central coast of Peru. The sites in this area show the domestication process began during the Preceramic period, beginning about 2500 BCE. By 1000 BCE the size and shape of Peruvian cotton bolls were indistinguishable from today's modern cultivars of G. barbadense.

Cotton production began on the coasts but eventually moved inland, facilitated by the construction of canal irrigation. By the Initial Period, sites such as Huaca Prieta contained domestic cotton 1,500 to 1,000 years before pottery and maize cultivation. Unlike in the old world, cotton in Peru was initially part of subsistence practices, used for fishing and hunting nets, as well as textiles, clothing and storage bags.


Pogledajte video: The Highwaymen, Cotton Fields (Decembar 2021).