Informacije

Thomas E. Dewey


24. marta 1902. u Owossu, Michigan, Thomas Edmund Dewey rođen je iznad djedove opće trgovine, sin lokalnog izdavača novina, Georgea M. Njegovo savršeno pohađanje, od vrtića do završene srednje škole 1919., bilo je karakteristično za upornost i predanost koju je pokazivao tokom svog života.

Nakon što je završio srednju školu Owosso, Dewey je stekao zvanje B.A. diplomirao 1923. na Univerzitetu u Michiganu. Dalje obrazovanje je završio na Pravnom fakultetu Univerziteta Columbia 1925. godine, a primljen je u advokatsku komoru u New Yorku 1926. Dewey je bio saradnik advokatske kancelarije MacNamara i Seymour od 1927. do 1931. Bio je oženjen 1928. za Frances E. Hutt .

Pokrenuvši svoju vladinu karijeru, Dewey je bio glavni pomoćnik američkog tužioca za južni okrug New Yorka od 1930. do 1933. Kada je postao američki tužilac, bio je i specijalni pomoćnik američkog državnog tužioca Homera Stille Cummingsa, te savjetnik advokatske komore Njujorka. Krajem 1935. godine, Dewey je imenovan specijalnim tužiocem za veliku porotu koja je vodila istragu o porocima i reketiranju u New Yorku, koju je pokrenuo guverner Herbert Lehman. Od 1935. do 1937. godine, Dewey je privukao nacionalnu pažnju kao tužilac u istrazi organizovanog kriminala - dobio je 72 osuđujuće presude od 73 krivična gonjenja.

Deweyjev snažni krstaški rat protiv kriminala počeo je napadom na prostituciju, kockanje i davanje zajma. Direktor FBI -a J. Edgar Hoover označio je mafijaša "holandskim" Schultz -ovim javnim neprijateljem broj 1. Dok je Dewey vodio istragu, Schultz je krenuo u uvjeravanje svojih saradnika mafije da bi ubistvo Deweyja trebao biti njihov odgovor. Glas o prijedlogu brzo je prošao i došao do vrhunskih mafijaških ličnosti poput Luckyja Luciana i Meyera Lanksyja. Čak i sa 10.000 dolara nagrade na Deweyjevoj glavi, odjel mafijaša, Murder Inc., umjesto toga odlučio se riješiti Schultza. Nacionalni odbor sindikata nije želio nevolje niti pažnju. Schultz i tri saradnika streljani su u oktobru 1935; međutim, Schulz nije umro odmah. Dok se zadržavao dva dana, federalni agenti su ga intenzivno ispitivali, ali bez uspjeha. Tek je pet godina kasnije Dewey saznao za plan atentata da ga ubije.

S obzirom da je Luciano sada izložen javnosti, Dewey ga je izveo pred sud zbog vođenja lanaca prostitucije po cijelom New Yorku. Luciano je vodio čistu evidenciju, pa ga nije bilo lako osuditi - poput njegovog kolege, Al Caponea iz Chicaga. Ipak, Dewey ga je uspio osuditi po 90 tačaka prostitucije, a 1936. Luciano je poslan u zatvor na 30 do 50 godina.

Nakon tog moćnog udarca na nacionalni kriminalni sindikat, biračko tijelo je bilo impresionirano Deweyevim ličnim nagonom. Djelomično zahvaljujući svojoj popularnosti, izabran je 1937. za okružnog tužioca u New Yorku. Dewey je zaslužan za osude brojnih mafijaša. Uz pomoć asistenta D.A. Burton Turkus, članovi mafije kao što su Gurrah Shapiro i Louis Lepke Buchalter poslati su na električnu stolicu. Nastavljajući svoju potragu za okončanjem organiziranog kriminala, Dewey se 1938. kandidirao za guvernera New Yorka, ali je izgubio na izborima.

Godine 1940. Dewey je podnio neuspješnu ponudu za republikansku predsjedničku nominaciju. Dok je bio okružni tužilac, mnogi su počeli preispitivati ​​njegovu etiku. Iako je bio odgovoran za uklanjanje kriminalca Luckyja Luciana zbog utaje poreza, Dewey je odobrio i njegovo premještanje u manje siguran zatvor, s mogućim uvjetnim otpustom i deportacijom u Italiju.

Puno je glasina, a jedno je da je rulja toliko željela Luciana da izađe iz zatvora da su namjestili potapanje Normandie kako bi pokazali što bi se moglo dogoditi s drugim brodovima u njujorškoj luci. Pronio se glas da Dewey i Luciano rade zajedno sa saveznim agentima za dobrobit zemlje, ne samo da zaštite dokove i druge brodove od potonuća, već i da pomognu u oslobađanju Italije od fašizma. Zauzvrat, Dewey bi Luciana oslobodio. Kružila je još jedna glasina da je Luciano uložio 90.000 dolara u Deweyjev fond za kampanju, što je narušilo besprijekornu reputaciju potonjeg. Deweyevi kritičari rekli su da je prošao put od "Racketbustera" do "Racketbackera".

Ne obeshrabren i odlučniji nego ikad, Dewey je izabran za guvernera 1942. Vodio je tijesan brod, pružajući profesionalnu i poslovnu administraciju. Tokom njegovog mandata postignuća su mu bila brojna. Insistirao je na prvom državnom zakonu protiv rasne ili vjerske diskriminacije u pogledu zapošljavanja, poboljšanog zapošljavanja i invalidnina. Učinkovit odbor za posredovanje u radu i opsežan program izgradnje autoputa dodani su na Deweyjevu listu postignuća. Održavanje demokrata u defanzivi i sprečavanje bilo kakvog potencijalnog raskola republikanaca bili su dijelovi njegovog plana igre.

Nasuprot tome, neki su vjerovali da je Dewey 1944. poslao vrhunskog člana sindikata Louisa Lepkea na električnu stolicu s izravnom vezom s isplatom rulje. The Hearst New York Daily Mirror spekulisalo je da je Lepke, u pokušaju da spasi svoj život, ponudio Deweyju informacije koje bi povezivale predsjednika Franklina D. Roosevelta i njegove članove kabineta s nekoliko zločina - uključujući i jedno ubistvo. S tim podacima, Lepke je pokušao uvjeriti Deweya da bi to od njega učinilo nenadmašnog predsjedničkog kandidata. Dewey je odobrio Lepkeu odgodu od 48 sati, ali s posljedicama koje su bile previše eksplozivne, nije postigao dogovor, pa je Lepke poslan u smrt.

Kao republikanski kandidat za predsjednika 1944. godine, Dewey se nije mogao mjeriti s reputacijom aktuelnog predsjednika u ratu, a nacija je ponovo izabrala Franklina D. Roosevelta. Uporni i nepokolebljivi, međutim, Dewey je ponovo nominiran 1948., ovaj put u borbi protiv potpredsjednika Harryja S. Trumana. Njegova agresivna kampanja i podrška naveli su njegove pristalice da vjeruju da će on biti sljedeći predsjednik Sjedinjenih Država. Zapanjujuće uznemiren, međutim, Dewey je poražen.

Dewey je bio vođa istočnih republikanaca na nacionalnoj konvenciji 1952. godine i odigrao je ključnu ulogu u nominaciji generala Dwighta D. Eisenhowera za predsjednika i senatora Richarda M. Nixona za potpredsjednika.

Zbog mogućeg nedostatka interesa Deweya za slučajeve kriminala i izbjegavanja njih, federalni istražni odbor odlučio je ispitati ga. Imali su na umu pomilovanje Luciana, kao i pitanja kockanja u državi Dewey. Njegov nedostatak odgovora odboru ostavio je više ljudi da se zapitaju o njegovim odnosima s mafijom. Činilo se da je guverner New Yorka vrlo malo znao o kriminalu u svojoj državi. Njegov treći guvernerski mandat završio je 1955. Napustivši političku arenu na kraju svog guvernerskog mandata, Dewey je tiho nastavio svoju unosnu advokatsku praksu.

Dodatno ocrnjujući njegov lik, mnogima se učinilo da je Dewey odjednom počeo ugađati gangsterima i njihovim kockarnicama. Početkom 1960 -ih, Dewey je postao glavni dioničar Mary Carter Paints, koja je imala interes za kockanje na Bahamima. Osim toga, Carterov glavni pomoćnik bio je nitko drugi do Meyer Lansky, koji je bio direktno povezan s mafijaškom komisijom, što je dovelo do novih sumnji u Thomasa E. Deweya i njegove poslove s mafijom.

Navodeći njegove godine, Dewey je odbio ponudu predsjednika Nixona da obavlja dužnost predsjednika Vrhovnog suda SAD -a 1968. Autor dvije knjige, Putovanje u daleki Pacifik (1952.) i Thomas E. Dewey o dvopartijskom sistemu (1966), Dewey je umro od zatajenja srca u Bal Harboru, Florida, 16. marta 1971. godine.


Thomas Edmund Dewey

Thomas E. Dewey rođen je 24. marta 1902. u Owossu, Mich, a 1923. godine diplomirao je umjetnost na Univerzitetu Michigan. Nakon što je kratko studirao muziku i pravo u Čikagu, upisao je Pravni fakultet Univerziteta Columbia. Nakon što je diplomirao 1925. godine, obišao je Englesku i Francusku. Vrativši se u New York, ušao je u državnu komoru, prihvatio službu u advokatskoj kancelariji i postao aktivan u Klubu mladih republikanaca. 1928. Dewey se oženio Frances E. Hutt i dobili su dvoje djece.

Godine 1931. američki tužilac za južni okrug New Yorka imenovao je Deweya za svog glavnog pomoćnika. Osim temeljnog poštenja i prirodne hrabrosti, Dewey je posjedovao i sposobnost za pažljivu i namjernu pripremu slučaja te zadivljujuću samokontrolu koja mu je omogućila da ostane hladan pod pritiskom. Ostavkom američkog advokata u novembru 1933. godine, Dewey je zauzeo tu poziciju - sa 31 godinu, najmlađi američki advokat ikada. Kada je predsjednik Franklin D. Roosevelt 5 sedmica kasnije imenovao demokratu na tu funkciju, Dewey se vratio privatnoj advokatskoj praksi. 1935. imenovan je specijalnim tužiocem za istragu organizovanog kriminala u New Yorku. Njegova kampanja protiv narkotika i reketara donijela je 72 osuđujuće presude u 73 krivična gonjenja. Godine 1937. izabran je za okružnog tužioca okruga New York.

1942. Dewey je izabran za guvernera New Yorka. Brzo je stekao reputaciju političke umjerenosti i administrativne efikasnosti, uživajući u srdačnim odnosima sa zakonodavnim tijelom. Uspjeh na mjestu guvernera, koji je pridonio njegovoj reputaciji u borbi protiv njujorških reketara, doveo je do visokog političkog ugleda Deweya. 1944. bio je predsjednički kandidat Republikanske stranke. Dobro je trčao, uprkos Rooseveltovom dosijeu kao ratnom vođi i Deweyjevom nedostatku iskustva u međunarodnim poslovima. Ponovno izabran za guvernera New Yorka 1946. godine, nastavio je s usvajanjem niza liberalnih zakona kroz zakonodavnu vlast.

Kao priznati predvodnik u svojoj drugoj predsjedničkoj kampanji-protiv demokrata Harryja Trumana 1948.-Dewey je odbio da se oporezuje, održao je samo nekoliko govora, izbjegao kontroverzna pitanja i jedva prepoznao opoziciju. Izgubio je od Trumana s malom razlikom. Godine 1950. izabran je za svoj treći uzastopni mandat guvernera New Yorka.

Na prijedlog savjetnika State Departmenta Johna Fostera Dullesa, Dewey je 1951. godine posjetio 17 zemalja Pacifika. Godine 1955. vratio se u privatnu praksu u njujoršku firmu Dewey, Ballantine, Bushby, Palmer i Wood. Do 1957. Dewey je dobio 16 počasnih diploma. Njegove knjige uključuju Slučaj protiv New Deala (1940), Putovanje u daleki Pacifik (1952), i Thomas E. Dewey o dvopartijskom sistemu (1966). Umro je 16. marta 1971. godine u Bal Harboru, Fla.


Thomas E. Dewey - Historija

Thomas Edmund Dewey rođen je u Owossu, Michigan, 24. marta 1902., od sina Martina i Annie (Thomas) Dewey. Njegov otac je bio izdavač lokalnih novina, Owosso Times. Rođen je iznad djedove trgovine u glavnoj ulici 323 W. Njegova dječačka kuća nalazila se u ulici W. Oliver 421.

Dewey je u ranim godinama radio na brojnim poslovima. Sa 13 godina osnovao je vlastitu novinsku agenciju i zaposlio još devet dječaka da prodaju novine i časopise od vrata do vrata. Ostali poslovi uključivali su rad u tvornici šećerne repe u Owossu, u lokalnoj ljekarni i na lokalnoj farmi.

Završio je Srednju gimnaziju u Owossu 1919. kao predsjednik svoje klase. Godišnjak ga je takođe naveo kao glavnog urednika časopisa Spic (godišnjak za srednju školu) i kao učesnik u debati, drami, kadetskom korpusu, bendu i drugim aktivnostima. Bio je član Hristove episkopske crkve gdje je pjevao i u horu.

Dewey je diplomirao na Univerzitetu Michigan 1923, a diplomirao pravo na Univerzitetu Columbia 1925. Naredne godine primljen je u advokatsku komoru u New Yorku. Od 1931. do 1933. bio je glavni pomoćnik američkog tužioca za južni okrug New Yorka, a od 1933. do 1935. kao specijalni pomoćnik američkog državnog tužioca Homera Stille Cummingsa.

Imenovan je specijalnim tužiocem za istragu organizovanog kriminala u New Yorku 1935. 1937. izabran je za okružnog okružnog tužioca i bio je poznat pod imenom & quotRackets Buster & quot; zbog izricanja 72 osuđujuće presude od 73 krivična gonjenja tokom prethodne dvije godine.

Naredne 1938. godine izgubio je izbore za guvernera New Yorka. Dve godine kasnije, dao je neuspešnu kandidaturu za republikansku predsedničku nominaciju. Međutim, 1942. pobijedio je u utrci za guvernatore New Yorka s impresivnom razlikom i ponovo je izabran 1946. i 1950. godine.

Godine 1944. Dewey je osvojio republikansku nominaciju za predsjednika, ali je izbore izgubio od popularnog Franklina D. Roosevelta. Četiri godine kasnije, ponovo se kandidovao protiv aktuelnog predsjednika Harryja S. Trumana. Kada se Dewey vratio u Owosso tokom svoje kampanje 1948., procijenjeno je da je 27.000 ljudi izašlo na ulice radi parade, a zatim napunilo Willman Field da ga čuje kako govori. Očekivalo se da će pobijediti na izborima, ali slaba kampanja, prekomjerno samopouzdanje i prosperitet zemlje Trumanu su donijeli uznemirenu pobjedu. Međutim, Chicago Daily Tribune's naslov, & quotDewey pobjeđuje Trumana & quot, dao mu je mjesto u američkom političkom folkloru.

Godine 1952. Dewey je pomogao generalu Dwightu D. Eisenhoweru i senatoru Richardu M. Nixonu da osvoje republikansku nominaciju. Na kraju svog trećeg guvernerskog mandata, Dewey se povukao iz aktivne politike i vratio u privatnu advokatsku praksu u New Yorku.

Nakon smrti svoje majke, Dewey se nekoliko puta vraćao u Owosso. 9. decembra 1962. bio je glavni govornik na posveti nove srednje škole. Zadnji put ga je posjetio u maju 1966. godine, kada je proveo jedan dan sa rođakom.

1928. Dewey se udala za Francis Ellen Hutt koju su upoznali u studiju svog učitelja pjevanja. Imali su dva sina-Thomasa Edmunda mlađeg i Johna Martina.

Dewey je autor nekoliko knjiga uključujući Putovanje u daleki Pacifik (o svojim putovanjima po Aziji 1951.) i Thomas E. Dewey o dvopartijskom sistemu (zbirka predavanja održanih na Univerzitetu Princeton 1950.).

Dewey je umro u 68. godini 16. marta 1971. godine od srčanog udara u Bal Harboru na Floridi. Sahrana je izvršena na groblju Pawling u Pawlingu u New Yorku.

Ostale web stranice

Donaldson, Gary. Truman pobjeđuje Deweya. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1999.

Hughes, Rupert. Advokat za narodnu priču Thomasa E. Deweya. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1940.

Smith, Richard Norton. Thomas E. Dewey i njegova vremena. New York: Simon & amp Schuster, 1982.

Stolberg, Mary M. Borba protiv organiziranog kriminala: politika, pravda i naslijeđe Thomasa E. Deweya. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1995.


Truman pobjeđuje Deweya

U jednom od najvećih problema u istoriji predsjedničkih izbora, demokratski predsjednik Harry S. Truman pobijedio je svog republikanskog kandidata, guvernera Thomasa E. Deweya iz New Yorka, sa nešto više od dva miliona glasova ljudi. U danima koji su prethodili glasanju, politički analitičari i ankete toliko su zaostajali za Deweyjem da su u izbornoj noći, mnogo prije nego što su prebrojani svi glasovi, Chicago Tribune objavio rano izdanje sa naslovom bannera �WEY DEFEATS TRUMAN. ”

Harryja Trumana je na mjesto predsjednika ubacila Franklin D. Rooseveltova smrt 1945. godine. Približavajući se predsjedničkim izborima 1948., činilo se da ima male šanse da zadrži Bijelu kuću. Uprkos njegovom efikasnom vođstvu na kraju Drugog svjetskog rata i zdravoj viziji u zbrkanom poslijeratnom svijetu, mnogi glasači su Trumana i dalje smatrali nedjelotvornom sjenom svog četverogodišnjeg prethodnika. Takođe je antagonizirao južne demokrate svojim inicijativama za građanska prava. Većina je bila sigurna da će Dewey uzeti Bijelu kuću.

Posljednjih sedmica prije izbora Truman je započeo kampanju “whistle stop ” širom Sjedinjenih Država prkoseći svojim dosljedno lošim nastupima na izborima. Putovao je u gradove i gradove Amerike, boreći se da pridobije neodlučne glasače predstavljajući se kao autsajder koji se bori sa Kongresom 𠇍o-nothing ”.  

Truman, nekadašnji poljoprivrednik koji je uzdignut do vrhunca američke politike zbog svoje reputacije poštenja i integriteta, osvojio je naklonost nacije i tijesno je osvojio drugi mandat.


U iskrivljavanju historije, film kleveta Deweya

United Artists, dio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer-a, u svom nedavno objavljenom filmu ' 'Hoodlum, ' ' učinili su sve kako bi diskreditovali lik i dostignuća mog pokojnog oca, Thomasa E. Deweya, bivši okružni tužilac u New Yorku, trostruki guverner New Yorka i dva puta republikanski kandidat za predsjednika (revizija, 27. augusta). Time je podsjetio na ozbiljnu štetu koju scenaristi, redatelji i producenti mogu nanijeti kada ponovo pronađu stvarnost.

' 'Hoodlum ' ' navodno prepričava priču o ratu između travnjaka između gangstera Dutch Schultz -a i Ellsworth -a (Bumpy) Johnson -a oko kontrole reketa s brojevima u Harlemu 1930 -ih ' -ih. Otvara se film postavljajući scenu kao ' 'Harlem 1934 ' ' i prikazuje stvarne ljude iz tog perioda. Ovi i drugi aspekti filma stvaraju utisak da ' 'Hoodlum ' ' precizno prikazuje ljude i događaje.

No, u svom tretmanu Thomasa E. Deweya, film postavlja povijest na glavu. Tokom cijelog filma moj je otac prikazan kao korumpirani javni dužnosnik, sastaje se i prihvaća isplate od samih kriminalaca koje goni. Činjenice su da ga se rulja plašila i gnušala ga se upravo zato što je bio jedan od rijetkih koji je bio spreman osporiti stisak organiziranog kriminala u New Yorku. Kao čovjek bez osporavanja integriteta, uspješno je procesuirao ne samo Luckyja Luciana i druge reketare, već i brojne korumpirane zvaničnike.

Ipak, ljudi koji nisu upoznati s njegovom karijerom vjerovat će da Thomas E. Dewey nije bio ništa bolji od kriminalaca za koje je optužen da ih procesuira. Ne može se pozvati na valjano potraživanje umjetničke dozvole da bi se opravdalo tako zlonamjerno ponovno otkrivanje historijske ličnosti, posebno kada je za stvaranje uloge mogao biti stvoren izmišljeni lik.


Thomas E. Dewey pobjeđuje Nizozemca Schultza

1920 -ih i ranih 1930 -ih, organizirani kriminal imao je prste u raznim reketima koji su se infiltrirali u sindikate, upravljali kockarskim društvima, potresali vlasnike restorana i još mnogo toga. Najefikasniji, odlučni i nemilosrdni gangsteri kontrolirali su poslovna carstva. Imali su moć jednaku gotovo svim političarima i prikupili bogatstva koja su se mogla mjeriti sa zakonitim kapitalistima. Neki su gangsteri postali toliko poznati da su bili poznati po svojim nadimcima. Tu je bio ‘Scarface Al Capone, Charles Lucky Luciano, Waxey Gordon, Benjamin Bugsy Siegel — i naravno, Dutch Schultz.

Njegovo pravo ime bilo je Arthur Flegenheimer, ali sebe je nazvao nizozemskim Schultzom jer se bolje uklapao u naslove novina. Hladnokrvni ubica sa temperamentom, Schultz je do sredine 1920-ih vodio svoju vlastitu krijumčarsku organizaciju. Ubrzo je kontrolirao gotovo svu ilegalnu distribuciju piva u Bronxu, zarađujući najmanje pola miliona dolara godišnje samo od ove aktivnosti.

Schultzove kriminalne aktivnosti na kraju su dovele do savezne optužnice za utaju poreza. Holanđanin je uspio pobijediti rep 1935., ali specijalni tužilac savezne države New York, Thomas E. Dewey, odbio ga je pustiti. Javno je Nizozemac izrazio malu zabrinutost. Ako me federalci ne bi mogli uhvatiti, rekao je Schultz, pretpostavljam da ovaj kolega Dewey ne bi mogao učiniti#8217. Privatno je, međutim, bila druga priča. Dewey mora ići, vrisnuo je saradniku. Mora biti pogođen u glavu.

Zabrana je stvorila mogućnosti kriminalnom podzemlju, ali nakon što je okončana 1933. mafijaši su se samo proširili na druga borilišta, često uz pomoć i zaštitu političkih i vođa zakona. U New Yorku je, na primjer, James Hines iz gradske političke mašine Tammany bio jedan od mnogih zvaničnika koji su se miješali u gangstere. Ovaj Hines je bio okružni vođa koji je kontrolirao druge okružne čelnike i bio je toliko moćan da je mogao narediti sudijama i policijskim službenicima, komentirao je nizozemski advokat Schultz, J. Richard Dixie Davis. Više puta sam kasno sjedio s Hinesom i Dutch Schultzom u noćnom klubu mafije dok smo smišljali načine na koje bi, uz holandsku mafiju i novac, Hines mogao proširiti svoju moć na još druge okruge i preuzeti potpunu kontrolu nad Tammanyjem i cijelim gradska vlast.

Do ranih 1930 -ih, nekoliko hrabrih tužilaca i vladinih agenata diljem zemlje počelo je uklanjati mafijaše i#8217 kriminalnih carstava. Među najistaknutijim je bio Thomas E. Dewey iz New Yorka. Rođen 1902. u Michiganu, Dewey je započeo svoju karijeru kao advokat na Wall Streetu, ali je ubrzo odustao od rada kao glavni pomoćnik američkog tužioca Georgea Z. Medalieja. Nizak, bistar, s tamnim brkovima, nepravilnim prednjim zubima i intenzivnim tamnim očima, Dewey je stekao reputaciju neumornog istražitelja sa zadivljujućim razumijevanjem detalja. Jedan od značajnih slučajeva Deweyja bio je tužba protiv krijumčara Irvinga Wexlera, zvanog Waxey Gordon. Za podizanje optužnice bilo je potrebno dvije i pol godine ispitati 1.000 svjedoka, 200 bankovnih računa i nekoliko hiljada sati velike porote, te ući u trag cestarinama više od 100.000 telefonskih poziva, prepričao je Dewey u svojoj autobiografiji. Naporan rad se isplatio. 1933. Gordon je osuđen na 10 godina u saveznoj kaznionici. Do tada se Medalie povukla, a Dewey je proglašen njegovim nasljednikom. Imao je samo 31 godinu, najmlađi američki advokat ikada. Ali to je bilo privremeno imenovanje, a nakon što je predsjednik Franklin Roosevelt, demokrata, imenovao svoj izbor na tu poziciju 1934, republikanac Dewey vratio se u privatni život.

Nije se tamo dugo zadržao. Sljedeće godine guverner New Yorka Herbert Lehman imenovao je Deweya za specijalnog tužioca optuženog za kršenje ovlasti reketara nad građanskim životom Manhattana. Poslovanje s mafijom stanovnike New Yorka koštalo je pola milijarde dolara godišnje i moralo se učiniti nešto da se okonča iznuda. Neki političari prijateljski nastrojeni prema mafiji iskoristili su svoje položaje da odugovlače svaku stvarnu istragu reketa, ali Dewey je bio revan, pošten i ambiciozan. Ne smijemo gubiti vrijeme na mladunče, rekao je svojim podređenima. Važni ljudi u podzemlju koji će biti predmet istrage.

Specijalni tužilac sa entuzijazmom se uključio u posao. Pronašao je poslovni prostor u zgradi Woolworth, koji je nudio mnogo izlaza za njegove doušnike da dolaze i odlaze bez da ih neko lako promatra. Dewey je okupio veliki tim pravnika, istražitelja, računovođa, stenografa i pomoćnog osoblja, žestoko lojalne grupe koja je dijelila volju šefa da radi cijele dane i noći. Nije moglo biti previše lako živjeti s takvim momcima, sjeća se jedan član osoblja. Bili su konkurentna, žilava grupa i mislim da je Dewey jedini čovjek kojeg sam srela i koji je mogao održati taj tim konja u harmoničnom trčanju. Mogao je jednim pogledom ugušiti svaki ustanak, a i sam je bio dovoljno čvrst da se niko nije zavaravao s njim.

Bio je to križarski rat, a svi smo bili dovoljno mladi da budemo vrlo vatreni križari, sjetila se još jednog od Deweyjevih advokata. Njegova odlučnost i upornost, pažnja s kojom je osjećao da bira svoje saradnike i veo visokog integriteta koji je stalno bio očit tokom istrage imali su ogroman inspirativni učinak — jer smo se borili protiv cijelog, organiziranog podzemlja u New Yorku York City, a mi smo bili snaga pristojnog života.

Dewey je znao da će njegov križarski rat zaslužiti neprijateljstvo najuspješnijih mafijaša u zemlji. Ipak, većina vođa mafije izgledala je bez brige. Šefovi kao što su Luciano, Louis Lepke Buchalter i Meyer Lansky znali su da su zvaničnici u New Yorku često gledali na drugu stranu kada je u pitanju organizirani kriminal. To je znao i Dewey. Lokalni zvaničnici su tokom istrage o Waxeyju Gordonu podigli brojne prepreke. Ipak, postojao je jedan gangster koji je specijalnog tužioca doživljavao kao prijetnju. Uprkos oštrim riječima o ovom Deweyjevom kolegi, Dutch Schultz je pokazivao znakove pucanja.

Arthur Flegenheimer bio je sin čuvara salona u Bronxu koji je napustio porodicu kada je dječak imao 14 godina. Dok se njegova majka mučila u nizu turobnih poslova kako bi spojila kraj s krajem, Arthur je krenuo drugim putem. Svoje prvo hapšenje, zbog provale, zabeležio je sa 17 godina. Nakon što je izašao iz zatvora, Arthur, koji se sada naziva holandskim Schultzom po ranijem njujorškom gangsteru, počeo je napredovati u svetu kriminala. Tokom zabrane, Schultz -ova operacija krijumčarenja učinila ga je pivskim barunom u Bronxu. Kasnije je započeo posao pretresanja restorana vrijednog 2 miliona dolara godišnje, kontrolirao je barem jedan sindikat i, možda najvažnije od svega, pokušao je preuzeti kontrolu nad unosnim poslovima u Harlemu. Politika, poznatija kao reket brojeva, bila je ilegalna, ali popularna kockarska igra. Igrači su se kladili na troznamenkasti broj, pri čemu je dobitnik dana#8217 slučajno određen, najčešće tako što su ga vezali za rezultate konjskih trka na lokalnoj stazi ili izvan grada. Čak i u Harlemu iz doba depresije iz 1931., pogođenom siromaštvom, reket je donosio oko 35.000 dolara dnevno.

Ipak, kontrola reketa brojeva, čak i sa profitnom maržom do 60 posto, nije bila dovoljna za Schultza. Uz neprocjenjivu pomoć matematičkog genija po imenu Otto Abbadabba Berman, Schultz je manipulirao pobjedničkim znamenkama tako da su rjeđe svirani brojevi osvajali. Prevara je njegove prihode stalno povećavala, možda čak i do 20 miliona dolara godišnje.

Kako bi nastavio s radom, Schultz se oslanjao na ljude poput Abea Bo Weinberga, ubojice umiješanog u ubistva rivala Jacka Legs Diamonda i Vincenta Mad Dog Colla. Na pravnom planu, Schultz je dobio savjet od Dixie Davis, koja nije imala problema da se spoji na pogrešnu stranu zakona. Pretpostavljam da biste mogli reći da sam zagađivao tok pravde, napisao je Davis za Collier ’s časopis 1939. godine, ali to su stručnjaci učinili mnogo prije nego što sam ja došao.

U istoj seriji časopisa Davis se prisjetio svog prvog susreta s Nizozemcem. Njegova ubilačka reputacija navela me je da očekujem bezobrazluka, ali on uopće nije bio takav. Bio je to mali, ali dobro postavljen čovjek, sa dobrim crtama lica. Djevojke su govorile da liči na Binga Crosbyja s razbijenim nosom. Morala sam naučiti da je njegova gomila mogla naučiti da je Schultz mogao biti bučan i bučan i pričati grube lopove ’ argot, ali ove noći bio je pristojan, dobro ... izgovoreno, ljubazno.

Davis je ubrzo saznao da je bivši Arthur Flegenheimer imao velike planove. Holandski Schultz je bio čovjek od vizije, napisao je advokat. Sjećam se vremena kada je čitao o ruskoj revoluciji i oči su mu zablistale dok mi je pričao kako su boljševici preuzeli zlato iz vladine banke. ‘Ti momci su isti kao ja, ’ rekao je. ‘Oni su#mafija. Da sam bio tamo sa mojom mafijom, mogao bih preuzeti, baš kao i oni. Ali ovdje, ’ tužno je dodao, ‘ vrijeme još nije sazrelo. ’

Schultz je volio moć, ali je još više volio novac. Možete uvrijediti Arthurovu djevojku, pljunuti mu u lice, gurnuti ga i on će se nasmijati, rekao je Davis. Ali nemojte ukrasti dolar s njegovih računa. Ako to učinite, bit ćete mrtvi.

Hitman Bo Weinberg bio je jedan čovjek koji je naučio na teži način. Weinberg je bio lojalan ubica Schultza. Čak je odležao i zbog nepoštivanja suda nakon što je odbio svjedočiti kada je Nizozemac prvi put optužen za utaju poreza. Ipak, kada je Schultz čuo da se Weinberg pokušao javiti na njegovu teritoriju, nije imao problema s tim da prema nekim izvještajima eliminira Bo — koji je sam obavio posao.

Dewey je stajao iza poreske optužnice, pa je Dutch odlučio odustati dok se agresivni mladi tužilac ne vrati privatnom životu. Nakon što je Dewey nestao, Schultz je uspio pobijediti rep. Njegovo prvo suđenje, održano u Sirakuzi u proljeće 1935. godine, završilo je pred porotom. Za drugo suđenje, kojem je Davis pomogao da se preseli u mali sjeverni gradić Malone u New Yorku, gangster je krenuo u blic sa odnosima s javnošću. Sprijateljio se s građanima, slao darove hospitaliziranoj djeci, proveo hiljade na zabavama za stanovnike Malonea#8217 — i dobio oslobađajuću presudu od lokalnih porotnika. Svima koji su pratili dokaze u ovom predmetu bit će jasno da ste donijeli presudu zasnovanu ne na dokazima, već iz nekog drugog razloga.

Schultz je tog ljeta napustio sudnicu u Maloneu i otkrio da se njegovo zločinačko carstvo raspada. Nikada nije bio popularan među vođama mafije u New Yorku, smatrali su ga previše hladnim, nasilnim i previše nepredvidivim, a njegovi kolege gangsteri preselili su se da mu podijele teritorij. Politika je bila jedina glavna djelatnost koja je zaista ostala njegova. Schultz je pametno, ali je znao da nije dovoljno moćan da vrati ono što je izgubio. Umjesto toga, krenuo je u pokušaj obnove svog carstva, koristeći brojeve kao kamen temeljac.

Tada je Schulz saznao da je Dewey usmjerio pogled na reket brojeva, promjenu strategije koju je Schultz percipirao kao izravnu prijetnju za njega. Schultz je takođe sumnjao da je Dewey to uradio za njega lično. Bio je u pravu. Oslobađajuća presuda za Nizozemca dospjela je na naslovne stranice — i učinila mafijaša javnim neprijateljem broj jedan za kancelariju specijalnog tužioca. Kao što je Dewey napisao u svojoj autobiografiji, smatrao sam da je od primarne važnosti dobiti holandskog Schultza.

Schultz je nekoliko dana brinuo o Deweyju. Konačno su ga paranoja i bezobzirnost doveli do smrtonosnog rješenja. On bi htio ubiti Deweya.

Odluka da napadne Deweya nije bila samo Schultzova. Do 1935. godine vrhunski mafijaši su osnovali sindikat i kartel najmoćnijih kriminalaca podzemnog svijeta. Njegovi članovi bili su Lucky Luciano, Meyer Lansky, Lepke Buchalter, Jacob Gurrah Shapiro, Frank Costello i Vito Genovese. Protokol je nalagao da Schultz svoj prijedlog iznese u upravni odbor sindikata. Članovi su podijeljeni oko plana. Mafijaši su se često međusobno ubijali, ali bi traganje za Deweyjem bio čin neviđene drskosti koji bi svladao bijes vlasti na mafije. Na kraju je grupa odgodila odluku, ali je počela postavljati temelje postavljajući Alberta Anastasiju da opiše shemu za potencijalno izvršenje. Pažnja Anastasije prema detaljima zaslužila mu je nadimak upravitelj organiziranog kriminala u njegovom rodnom okrugu u Brooklynu. On je također bio čovjek koji je bio zadužen za sindikalni odred smrti#8217s, organizaciju koja je kasnije označila Murder Inc.

Dewey je znao da bi njegove istrage mogle dovesti do ličnih posljedica, pa je nevoljko prihvatio usluge barem jednog policijskog tjelohranitelja. Nakon sastanka sindikata, Dewey je primio nekoliko prijetećih telefonskih poziva, a proširile su se i glasine da mu je na glavi cijena od 25.000 dolara. Dewey did not back off, but he did take the news seriously, and he allowed the bodyguards to trail him closely. As he put it, ordinary hoodlums would be scared off by the detective … [and] the top gangsters would be too smart to tangle with such a well-protected man.

Anastasia moved carefully. He first hired a man — some accounts say he did the job himself — to study Dewey’s morning routine. The spy watched the prosecutor’s neighborhood in the company of a little boy who diverted suspicion by riding a velocipede, or tricycle, in front of Dewey’s apartment building. Apparently neither Dewey nor his escort ever thought twice about the man and his supposed son.

On four consecutive mornings the doting father tailed Dewey. He learned that the special prosecutor left home each morning around 8:00 and headed to a nearby pharmacy to use the pay phone, so he wouldn’t disturb his sleeping wife, and to avoid any possible taps on his home phone. While Dewey called his office from the drugstore, his security detail remained outside on the sidewalk.

The plot began to fall into place. The hitman would enter the drugstore before Dewey arrived. Once the unsuspecting prosecutor was in the phone booth, the murderer would shoot him, then kill the pharmacist to eliminate the only witness. By using a silencer, the killer would ensure that the bodyguards outside would hear nothing. Once finished, the shooter would calmly walk past the guards and around the corner to a waiting getaway car.

The plan appeared feasible, but Schultz made little headway with the syndicate leaders at an October meeting. Only garment-district racketeer Gurrah Shapiro sided with the Dutchman. The others believed that Dewey’s murder would create more problems than it would solve. We will all burn if Dewey is knocked off, said Lepke. The easier solution was the tried-and-true technique of witness intimidation. We are bombproof when all the right people are out of the way, argued Lepke. We get them out of the way now — then the investigation collapses, too.

Schultz himself was a factor behind the board’s reluctance. Many of the mobsters thought the Dutchman was a loose cannon. The murder of Bo Weinberg, well liked and respected among underworld members, had been a black mark against Dutch. Furthermore, the other mob leaders had designs on Schultz’s business interests.

In the end, the syndicate refused to authorize the Dewey hit. Schultz was enraged. I still say he oughta be hit, he said. And if nobody else is gonna do it, I’m gonna hit him myself. With those words, Dutch Schultz signed his own death warrant. Lepke quickly dispatched two of his best operatives, Emanuel Mendy Weiss and Charlie the Bug Workman, to take care of the problem.

They did so with remarkable efficiency. On the evening of October 23, Workman and Weiss arrived at the Palace Chop House in Newark, New Jersey. Weiss stayed at the door to act as lookout, while Workman headed to the back, where an informer had told them they would find Schultz. Opening the door to the men’s room, the killer saw a man at a urinal. He assumed the man was a bodyguard. Workman fired, and his victim fell to the ground.

Then Workman stepped out into the back room, where he found three of Schultz’s henchmen — mathematical genius Abbadabba Berman and bodyguards Abe Landau and Bernard Lulu Rosenkrantz. Schultz was nowhere in sight. Methodically, Workman riddled the three gangsters with a hail of bullets as they futilely tried to shoot back. Still, Schultz was nowhere to be found and Workman began to worry until he realized that the man in the bathroom had been the Dutchman himself.

Schultz did not die immediately. He lingered for 22 hours, drifting in and out of lucidity, as police questioners at the hospital urged him to name his killer. When asked, Who shot you? Schultz answered first with a vague, The Boss himself, and then changed his answer to No one. The Dutchman continued to babble incoherently for several hours. On October 25, Schultz murmured, French-Canadian bean soup. I want to pay. Let them leave me alone, slipped into a coma, and died. He was 33 years old.

Dewey continued his crusade to loosen the mobs’ grip on New York City. In 1936 he sent Luciano to prison for running a prostitution ring. Elected district attorney the next year, Dewey got a conviction for Tammany’s Jimmy Hines. Gurrah and Lepke soon followed. Lepke, convicted of murder, became the highest-ranking mob boss to die in the electric chair. The masterminds of the underworld had spared Dewey’s life, and the special prosecutor had repaid the gangsters by putting them in prison and breaking up their empires.

The plan to kill Dewey finally came to light in 1941, when a mob informer tipped off authorities to Charlie Workman’s role in the affair. Workman was arrested, found guilty of murder, and sent to jail. After the story came out, Dewey denied any knowledge of the plot. He had heard vague threats, nothing more. I had no idea whether those stories were true, he wrote in his autobiography. They might have been just underworld gossip. Nor did Dewey admit to any awareness of the plot when Assistant District Attorney Burt Turkus described the details to him years later. Dewey sat motionless as Turkus filled him in, his face and body language betraying no reaction and no familiarity with the details.

Except, perhaps, just once. When I mentioned the baby on the velocipede, Turkus wrote afterwards in his book Murder, Inc., Dewey’s eyes widened a fraction. It was a barely perceptible flicker….It gave me an idea, though, that he had recalled the tot — and its ‘proud parent.’ Whether Dewey remembered the child or not, it is a good bet that the story of Dewey’s near-assassination is the only time the mob killed one of its own to protect an honest prosecutor.

This article was written by Stephen Currie and originally published in December 2002 issue of American History Časopis. Za još sjajnih članaka pretplatite se na American History časopis danas!


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History of the Office

The Manhattan District Attorney's Office has a long tradition of excellence and non-partisanship, and is considered one of the nation’s preeminent prosecutor’s offices. Since the 1930s, there have been just four elected District Attorneys, and each has had a significant impact on modern criminal prosecution.

Early District Attorneys

Until 1801, Manhattan did not have a District Attorney instead, criminal cases were prosecuted personally by the New York State Attorney General. Manhattan’s first District Attorneys were appointed by the Council of Appointment, a body created by the New York Constitution of 1777 for the purpose of appointing government officials for which the Constitution provided no other means of appointment or election. Under the Constitution of 1821, District Attorneys were appointed by the now-abolished Court of General Sessions, a process that continued until the Constitution of 1846, which provided for the popular election of District Attorneys. The first elected Manhattan District Attorney was John McKeon, who was elected in 1847 after having been appointed the previous year.

Thomas E. Dewey

The modern era of professional, non-partisan prosecution began in 1935 when Thomas E. Dewey was named a special prosecutor to combat organized crime in Manhattan. With his own staff, offices and budget, Mr. Dewey operated independently of the sitting District Attorney. Among Mr. Dewey’s innovations upon taking office as District Attorney were the creation of the Rackets Bureau and the Frauds Bureau, the establishment of a team of forensic accountants to investigate financial crimes, and the creation of an in-house Investigation Bureau.

For much of its earlier history, the District Attorney’s Office had been beset by political cronyism and a somewhat laissez-faire attitude toward crime. The Office changed course radically with Mr. Dewey’s election as Manhattan District Attorney in 1938. Having galvanized the legal community with his far-reaching assault on racketeering and organized crime while New York’s Special Prosecutor, the “racket-buster” brought the same measure of boundless energy, political non-partisanship, imagination and zeal to his four-year tenure as District Attorney.

Mr. Hogan & Mr. Dewey, date unknown
Mr. Dewey campaigning for District Attorney, ca. 1937
Racket Busters film poster, 1938

“When Dewey took over, the atmosphere became rather like that in Washington during the early days of the New Deal,” one reporter observed, referring to the excitement, energy and glamour that characterized both enterprises. Traditionally the preserve of clubhouse politicians and their pool of patrons, “the office” under Mr. Dewey’s direction assembled a staff of lawyers and investigators that in the following decades read like a Who’s Who of the legal profession.

What’s more, his many innovations redefined the work of the District Attorney’s Office. From a relatively passive, reactive force, it was transformed into a “veritable factory of prosecution.”

Salvatore “Lucky Luciano” Lucania mug shot, 1936

Mr. Dewey took the lead in investigating extortion rings, prostitution, gambling, and corruption in organized labor and government. Under Mr. Dewey, the Office convicted a host of organized crime members and associates, including the notorious Salvatore Lucania, also known as “Lucky” Luciano.

During much of the 19th and early 20th centuries, Tammany Hall reigned as one of the nation’s most successful and corrupt political machines. In 1937, the Office secured the conviction of local Tammany Hall boss Jimmy Hines, one of the most powerful leaders of Tammany Hall in New York City.

Mr. Dewey also famously conducted the investigation that led to the corruption conviction and incarceration of Martin T. Manton, who was at the time the Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.

Top Row- L- Publication name unknown, 1939R- The New York Times, 1939 (1)

Frank S. Hogan

In 1942, after Mr. Dewey had been elected Governor, Administrative Assistant District Attorney Frank S. Hogan succeeded him as District Attorney. Mr. Hogan was re-elected nine times and served as District Attorney for 32 years, until he resigned from office in 1974, a short time before his death.

In the course of his 32 years in office, he steadily fashioned the Manhattan District Attorney’s Office into a paradigm of the modern prosecutor’s office. Known simply as “Hogan’s office,” and, on occasion, “Hogan’s Ministry of Justice,” the Manhattan District Attorney’s Office established a widely copied canon of legal and personal conduct for its prosecutors.

Frank Hogan swearing in, 1949
Frank Hogan swearing in, date unknown
Mr. Hogan in Life Magazine, 1963
Mr. Hogan in Life Magazine, 1963

In high-profile cases of all kinds, including organized crime, major fraud, corruption, and homicide, as well as the no less serious robberies and other street crimes, the Office developed a national reputation for excellence, non-partisanship and fairness. The Office was as concerned with exonerating the innocent as with convicting the guilty.

In one of its most celebrated cases, the Office, after an extensive investigation, exonerated George Whitmore, Jr., who had confessed to the brutal 1963 killing of two young women in their Manhattan apartment. The real killer was later identified, prosecuted and convicted.

Dotto host, Associated Press, 1958. The investigation of Dotto catalyzed the quiz show scandals of the late 1950s.

Under Mr. Hogan, the District Attorney’s Office continued to conduct major investigations into fraud, corruption and racketeering, including, for example, highly-publicized probes in the 1950s and early 1960s into the fixing of college basketball games and the television quiz show scandals.

In 1958, District Attorney Hogan began an investigation into cheating on the television quiz show Dotto following a standby contestant’s discovery of a notebook used to prep winners with the answers. It quickly became apparent to DA Hogan that a widespread conspiracy was in place to hide the truth from the public.

Many producers and contestants lied to the Manhattan DA’s Grand Jury and a subcommittee of the U.S. House of Representatives about their role in quiz show trickery, but eventually admitted to coaching contestants to agonize and sweat over answers they already knew.

Shortly after the quiz show scandals came into public view thanks to Mr. Hogan’s investigation, the U.S. Congress made it a federal crime to give or receive assistance on a quiz show.

“In theory, the function of the District Attorney is to prosecute in the courts people charges with committing felonies and misdemeanors. In fact, so far as serious crimes are concerned, Hogan’s office determines whether accused people are guilty or not. Once the New York D.A. decides you are guilty of a felony, you are. As of June 23, the office has prosecuted to a conclusion this year 2,182 people accused of a felony. Seven of them—0.33%—had been acquitted. Seventy-two had been convicted by juries, and 2,103 have entered a plea of guilty to something.

Defendants plead guilty in New York County because their lawyers can demonstrate to them that they have no earthly hope of winning in court. Thought Hogan has no firm policy on disclosing the prosecution’s case, and an Assistant District Attorney who feels the defense lawyer is a crook is empowered to give him no more than the law demands , standard operating procedure is to lay out the people’s evidence in a conference with the defendant’s lawyer and then begin to negotiate about the severity of the charge to which the defendant should plead.

‘Our record of convictions,’ Hogan says, ‘does not show greater proficiency in the courtroom, but a better screening process. I ask a question whenever there’s an acquittal, because it means the jury thinks we brought an innocent man to trial, and I think a jury is usually right.'”

– “Hogan’s Office is a Kind of Ministry of Justice”, NYT Magazine, July 23, 1967

“Hogan’s Office” is a Kind of Ministry of Justice, NYT Magazine, July 23, 1967

Mr. Hogan campaigns with Mr. Morgenthau, 1973

Richard Kuh succeeded DA Hogan as Manhattan District Attorney after Mr. Hogan suffered a stroke and resigned. The street address of the Manhattan District Attorney’s main office was renamed One Hogan Place in his honor. Mr. Kuh was defeated by Robert M. Morgenthau in the September 1974 Democratic primary for the special election to fill the vacancy.

Robert M. Morgenthau

In 1975, Robert M. Morgenthau, who had previously served for nine years as the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, became the Manhattan District Attorney. Faced with rising levels of violent street crime and property offenses when he took office, District Attorney Morgenthau restructured the Office, implementing early screening of felony cases by experienced assistant district attorneys and “vertical” prosecution, which guaranteed that felonies and other serious cases would be handled by the same prosecutor from start to finish. Over the years, he created many specialized units, including the nation’s first Sex Crimes Unit. These organizational changes boosted Manhattan’s conviction rate and led to a dramatic decline in violent crime.

Mr. Morgenthau with staff, 1988 Photo Credit: New York Magazine
Mr. Morgenthau at work, 1988. Photo Credit: Julianne Schaer
West Side Highway, 1975. Photo Credit: Andy Blair

With more violent felons and repeat offenders being sentenced to state prison, crime in New York County dropped markedly. For example, in 2008 there were 62 homicides, 89 percent fewer than in 1974, the year Mr. Morgenthau was elected. During Mr. Morgenthau’s tenure, there was an equally dramatic drop in other crimes throughout Manhattan, including robbery, burglary, and forcible rape.

Mr. Morgenthau shakes hands with President John F. Kennedy, 1962
Mr. Morgenthau shakes hands with Martin Luther King, Jr., 1962
Mr. Morgenthau shakes hands with President Lyndon B. Johnson, 1967
Mr. Morgenthau campaigning with Robert F. Kennedy, 1960
Mr. Morgenthau campaigning with John F. Kennedy, 1960

Under Mr. Morgenthau, the Office tirelessly pursued public corruption, complex fraud, and organized crime cases. The Investigation Division was created to coordinate the Office’s white-collar crime, corruption, and organized crime efforts, creating specialized units as needed, such as the Money Laundering and Tax Crimes Unit, to focus on areas of particular concern. The Investigation Division prosecuted systemic corruption and fraud in the construction trades, the garment industry, foreign and domestic banking, the securities business, municipal unions, and city and state government.

In a prosecution of major figures in the private trade-waste business in the mid-to-late 1990s, the Office used the state’s Organized Crime Control Act to help rid an important sector of the city’s economy of mob domination and anti-competitive practices, leading to administrative reform in the licensing and regulation of waste carters.

Matter of Morgenthau v. Cook was the only case DA Morgenthau argued personally before the New York Court of Appeals. Mr. Morgenthau challenged the system of assignment of judges in the City of New York, by filing a proceeding against the Chief Judge of the State of New York (Cook). Cook recused from the case, leaving only six Judges, and Morgenthau won 6-0.

Under Mr. Morgenthau, the Office’s Trial Division prosecuted some of the most notorious homicides in recent memory, including: the murder of John Lennon the CBS murders the murder of 6-year-old Lisa Steinberg by her adopted father, Joel Steinberg the murder of Police Officer Anthony Sanchez the “preppy murder” of Jennifer Levin by Robert Chambers the murder of Irene Silverman by grifters Sante and Kenneth Kimes and the murder of “realtor to the stars” Linda Stein by Natavia Lowery.

Civic Involvement

One of D.A. Morgenthau’s principal civic activities is the Police Athletic League of New York City (PAL), which he has served since 1962, first as President and then as Chairman of the Board of Directors.

Robert Morgenthau at PAL Play Streets opening, date unknown
Robert Morgenthau playing stickball at PAL Play Streets opening, date unknown

Cyrus R. Vance, Jr.,

Cyrus R. Vance, Jr., was first sworn in as the District Attorney of New York County on January 1, 2010. Since then, Mr. Vance enhanced the District Attorney’s Office as a national leader in criminal justice by expanding its expertise on an array of 21st century crimes.

Mr. Vance’s achievements as District Attorney include the creation of the first Conviction Integrity Program and Crime Strategies Unit in the five boroughs 24 indictments against gun traffickers, leading to the removal of more than 3,000 illegal firearms from city streets dismantling 18 violent street gangs in Manhattan the first convictions of individuals on State terror charges in New York the dismantling of multiple domestic and international cybercrime and identity theft operations and the recovery of nearly $12 billion dollars over the course of settlements with nine banks that violated U.S. sanctions.

District Attorney Vance was reelected in 2017, and is the co-founder and co-chair of Prosecutors Against Gun Violence, an independent, non-partisan coalition of prosecutors from major jurisdictions across the country. He is also a co-founder of the Global Cyber Alliance a non-profit, cross-sector coalition focused on reducing digital vulnerability through the exchange of threat data and the development of open-source risk management solutions.

District Attorney Vance has also taken a national leadership role in addressing the issue of race in the criminal justice system, including commissioning a study by the non-partisan Vera Institute of Justice to evaluate the Office’s practices in charging, plea-bargaining, and bail. Using funds obtained through penalties leveled against financial institutions that violated U.S. sanctions, Mr. Vance has made a series of significant investments in transformative criminal justice initiatives in New York City and nationally. These programs include the testing of backlogged rape kits nationwide equipping every NYPD officer and patrol car with handheld mobile devices and tablets reducing the number of individuals with mental and behavioral health issues in the criminal justice system and enhancing security in New York City Public Housing Authority developments.

Mr. Vance is a graduate of Yale University and Georgetown University Law Center.

Complete list of Manhattan District Attorneys

  • Cyrus R. Vance, Jr., 2010 – Present
  • Robert M. Morgenthau, 1975 – 2009
  • Richard H. Kuh, 1974 – 1974
  • Frank S. Hogan, 1942 – 1974
  • Thomas E. Dewey, 1938 – 1941
  • William C. Dodge, 1934 – 1937
  • Thomas C.T. Crain, 1930 – 1933
  • Joab H. Banton, 1922 – 1929
  • Edward Swann, 1916 – 1921
  • Charles Albert Perkins, 1915 – 1915
  • Charles Seymour Whitman, 1910 – 1914
  • William Travers Jerome, 1902 – 1909
  • Eugene A. Philbin, 1900 – 1901
  • Asa Bird Gardiner, 1898 – 1900
  • William Marvin K. Olcott, 1896 – 1897
  • Vernon M. Davis, 1896 – 1896
  • John R. Fellows, 1894 – 1896
  • De Lancey Nicoll, 1891 – 1893
  • John R. Fellows, 1888 – 1890
  • Randolph B. Martine, 1885 – 1887
  • Peter B. Olney, 1883 – 1884
  • Wheeler H. Peckham, 1883 – 1883
  • John McKeon, 1882 – 1883
  • Daniel G. Rollins, 1881 – 1881
  • Benjamin K. Phelps, 1873 – 1880
  • Samuel B. Garvin, 1869 – 1872
  • Abraham Oakey Hall, 1862 – 1868
  • Nelson J. Waterbury, 1859 – 1861
  • Joseph Blunt , 1858 – 1859
  • Peter B. Sweeney, 1858 – 1858
  • Abraham Oakey Hall, 1855 – 1858
  • Lorenzo B. Shepard, 1854 – 1855
  • Nathaniel Bowditch Blunt, 1851 – 1854
  • James R. Whiting, 1838 – 1844
  • Ogden Hoffman, 1829 – 1835
  • Hugh Maxwell, 1821 – 1829
  • Pierre C. VanWyck, 1818 – 1821
  • Hugh Maxwell, 1817 – 1818

Notable Alumni

  • Supreme Court Justice Sonia M. Sotomayor
  • Governor Andrew M. Cuomo
  • Former Governors Thomas E. Dewey, Charles S. Whitman, and Eliot Spitzer
  • Senior Judge Pierre N. Leval of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
  • Barbara Underwood, former NYS Attorney General
  • NYU Law School Center on Civil Justice Director Peter Zimroth, former New York City Corporation Counsel
  • Roslynn R. Mauskopf, Director of the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts
  • John Keenan, United States District Judge for the Southern District of New York
  • Barbara S. Jones, Former United States District Judge for the Southern District of New York
  • Sterling Johnson, Dora Irizarry, and Ann Donnelly, United States District Judges for the Eastern District of New York
  • Ellen N. Biben, Administrative Judge of the Supreme Court, Criminal Term, New York County and former New York State Inspector General, as well as former Inspectors General and now Judges of the Court of Claims Dineen Riviezzo and Jill Konviser
  • Former Chief Judges Charles Breitel and Stanley Fuld of the New York Court of Appeals
  • Former United States Attorneys for the Southern District of New York Emory Buckner and George Z. Medalie
  • Former United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York Robert Capers
  • Ronald G. Goldstock, the first Director of the New York State Organized Crime Task Force
  • Lanny Breuer, former Assistant Attorney General for the Criminal Division of the Department of Justice
  • Herbert J. Stern, former United States Attorney and District Judge for the District of New Jersey
  • Linda Fairstein, best-selling author and renowned Sex Crimes Prosecutor
  • Anne Milgram, former Attorney General of New Jersey
  • Robert E. O’Neill, former United States Attorney for the Middle District of Florida
  • Justin Herdman, the United States Attorney for the Northern District of Ohio
  • Michael Dougherty, District Attorney of Boulder County, Colorado
  • Nicholas Scoppetta, former Commissioner of the Administration for Children’s Services and former New York City Fire Commissioner
  • Archibald Murray, the first African-American president of the New York State Bar Association and former Commissioner of the NYS Division of Criminal Justice Services and Attorney-in-Chief and Executive Director of the Legal Aid Society
  • Numerous judges, lawyers in public service and private practice, academics, and many others.

Election night

As the returns rolled in on election night, Truman took a narrow lead, but political commentators still believed that Dewey would ultimately win. Emblematic of this was the Chicago Daily Tribune’s decision to distribute a paper with the famous headline “Dewey Defeats Truman.” The Tribina was not alone that night in its error. NBC radio commentator H.V. Kaltenborn reported, “Mr. Truman is still ahead, but these are returns from a few cities. When the returns come in from the country the result will show Dewey winning overwhelmingly.” Truman would soon go to bed, convinced that he would win. In the early hours of the morning, Truman was awakened to hear that he led by two million votes but that Kaltenborn was still claiming that Truman would not win. By mid-morning Dewey had sent a telegram to Truman conceding the election. Dewey, clearly dumbfounded, said in a news conference on November 3, “I was just as surprised as you are.”

When the final votes were tallied, Truman had won by a comfortable margin, capturing 49.4 percent of the vote to Dewey’s 45.0 percent. In the electoral college Truman amassed 303 votes by winning 28 states, while Dewey captured 189 electoral votes by winning 16 states. Thurmond drew the votes of only 2.4 percent of the public, though he garnered more than one million votes because his supporters were concentrated heavily in the South, he was able to win four states (Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina) and 39 electoral votes (one Tennessee elector cast his electoral vote for Thurmond rather than Truman, the state’s winner). Wallace won only 13,000 fewer popular votes than Thurmond, but with diffuse support he came close to winning no state.

For the results of the previous election, see United States presidential election of 1944. For the results of the subsequent election, see United States presidential election of 1952.


Thomas E. Dewey

The legacy of Thomas E. Dewey was an enduring advance in the efficiency and integrity of government in this state and city. From his emergence as a youthful smasher of labor rackets, through his capture of the District Attorneyship from Tammany Hall, to his three highly successful terms as Governor, Mr. Dewey elevated both the standards and the quality of public service.

His defeat by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1944 Presi dential campaign was neither surprise nor disappoint ment to him. Running against the incumbent President under wartime conditions ruled out any likelihood of a Dewey victory. That was decidedly not true of his 1948 defeat by Harry S. Truman, one of the most stun ning political upsets in American history. In that cam paign Mr. Dewey's overconfidence and his lack of per sonal warmth contributed to his unexpected failure to win the Presidency.

That setback did not embitter him or cause any slack ening in his dedication to the public interest. He put aside tempting opportunities in private law practice to run for—and win—a third term as Governor. At the 1952 Republican national convention Mr. Dewey was principally responsible for the nomination of Dwight D. Eisenhower over Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio.

His major mark was made in Albany, where he added luster to the record of excellence in office made by his Democratic predecessors—Alfred E. Smith, Frank lin D. Roosevelt and Herbert H. Lehman. Basically con servative in his own economic philosophy, he contributed much to shaping the progressive tradition that became a distinctive characteristic of the New York State G.O.P.

He was an ardent champion of “pay as you go” in state government, a principle somewhat easier to apply in his twelve years as Governor than it is in these days of urban crisis. The State University and the Waterfront Commission are both monuments to the Dewey sense of governmental responsibility. He surrounded himself with associates of great competence, stripped political bosses of authority in state affairs and battled ceaselessly against the incursions of organized crime.

A state that takes warranted pride in the caliber of its chief executives will accord Thomas Dewey a position of special prominence in that distinguished company.


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