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Mala Ada ScStr - Historija


Mala Ada
(ScStr: t 150; 1. 112 '; b. 12'6 "; dr. 8', s. 10k.
a. 2 20-pdr. Parrott r.)

Mala Ada, parobrod od željeznih vijaka; izgrađen je u škotskom gradu Clyde; zarobljen i napušten u rijeci South Santee 30. marta 1864; ponovo zarobljen na moru od Gettysburga 9. jula 1864; kupio Nav y od Nagradnog suda u Bostonu 18. avgusta 1864, a dao u rad u Bostonu 5. oktobra 1864. Vršilac dužnosti majstora Samucl P. Craft komanduje.

Nakon polaska na put, Mala Ada je upućena u zapadni bar, rijeka Cape Fear, 8. novembra 1864. U prosincu je sudjelovala u napadima na Fort Fisher.

Najaktivnija služba male Ade 1865. godine. Bila je dio odvojene linije Sjevernoatlantske eskadrile za blokadu 3. januara za vojsku. Ponovno je sudjelovala u napadima na Fort Fisher od 12. do 15. siječnja, prenoseći depeše kroz flotu. Nakon što je dodijeljena floti Potomac 10. marta, zauzela je veliki brodski brod 9. aprila u Hooper Straitu, Md. Poslana je u mornaričko dvorište Washington 31. maja 1865., napuštena 24. juna 1865. i prebačena u Ratno odjeljenje 12. avgusta 1865.


Kada je 'Capitol Crawl' dramatizirao Zakon o potrebi Amerikanaca s invaliditetom

Dana 13. marta 1990. godine, više od 1.000 ljudi marširalo je od Bijele kuće do Kapitola SAD -a sa zahtjevom da Kongres usvoji Zakon o Amerikancima s invaliditetom, ili ADA. Kad su stigli tamo, njih 60 -ak odbacilo je svoja invalidska kolica i druga pomagala za kretanje i dopuzalo uz stepenice Kapitola.

�pitol Crawl, ” kako je poznato, bio je fizička demonstracija kako nedostupna arhitektura utječe na osobe s invaliditetom. Također je istaknuta hitnost iza potrebe usvajanja ADA -e, koju je predsjednik George H.W. Bush je potpisao zakon 26. jula 1990. godine.


George Boole

Naši urednici će pregledati ono što ste poslali i odlučiti da li želite da prepravite članak.

George Boole, (rođen 2. novembra 1815, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, Engleska - umro 8. decembra 1864, Ballintemple, okrug Cork, Irska), engleski matematičar koji je pomogao u uspostavljanju moderne simboličke logike i čija je algebra logike, koja se sada naziva Booleova algebra, osnova dizajn digitalnih računarskih kola.

Boole je prve lekcije iz matematike dobio od svog oca, trgovca, koji ga je također naučio praviti optičke instrumente. Osim očeve pomoći i nekoliko godina u lokalnim školama, Boole je bio samouk iz matematike. Kada je očev posao opao, George je morao raditi na izdržavanju porodice. Od 16. godine predavao je u seoskim školama u West Riding -u u Yorkshireu, a svoju je školu otvorio u Lincolnu sa 20 godina. Tokom oskudnog slobodnog vremena čitao je matematičke časopise na Lincoln's Mechanics Institute. Tamo je čitao i knjigu Isaaca Newtona Principia, Pierre-Simon Laplace’s Traité de mécanique céleste, i Joseph-Louisa Lagrangea Mécanique analytique i počeo rješavati napredne probleme u algebri.

Boole je novom poslao niz originalnih radova Cambridge Mathematical Journal, počevši 1841. sa svojim “Istraživanjima o teoriji analitičkih transformacija”. Ovi su radovi bili o diferencijalnim jednadžbama i algebarskom problemu linearne transformacije, naglašavajući koncept invarijantnosti. 1844. godine u važnom radu u Filozofske transakcije Kraljevskog društva, "O općoj metodi analize", za koju je nagrađen prvom zlatnom medaljom Kraljevskog društva za matematiku, raspravljao je o tome kako se mogu kombinirati metode algebre i računa. Boole je ubrzo uvidio da se njegova algebra može primijeniti i u logici.

Razvijajući nove ideje o logičkoj metodi i siguran u simboličko zaključivanje koje je izveo iz svojih matematičkih istraživanja, objavio je 1847. pamflet, Matematička analiza logike, kao esej prema računu deduktivnog zaključivanja, u kojem je uvjerljivo tvrdio da logiku treba povezati s matematikom, a ne s filozofijom. Dobio je divljenje engleskog logičara Augustusa De Morgana, koji je objavio Formalna logika iste godine. Na osnovu svojih publikacija, Boole je 1849. godine imenovan za profesora matematike na Queen's Collegeu u okrugu Cork (sada Univerzitetski koledž Cork), iako nije imao fakultetsku diplomu. 1854. objavio je Istraživanje zakona misli, na kojima se temelje matematičke teorije logike i vjerojatnosti, koju je smatrao zrelim iskazom svojih ideja. Sledeće godine oženio se Meri Everest, nećakinjom ser Džordža Everesta, po kome je planina i dobila ime. Booles je imao pet kćerki.

Jedan od prvih Engleza koji je pisao o logici, Boole je ukazao na analogiju između algebarskih simbola i onih koji mogu predstavljati logičke oblike i silogizme, pokazujući kako se simboli količine mogu odvojiti od operativnih. S Booleom 1847. i 1854. započela je algebra logike, ili ono što se danas naziva Booleova algebra. Booleova originalna i izvanredna opća simbolička metoda logičkog zaključivanja, potpuno navedena u Zakoni misli (1854), omogućava, s obzirom na sve propozicije koje uključuju bilo koji broj pojmova, da izvede zaključke koji su logički sadržani u premisama. Bulovo apsurdno zaključivanje dovelo je do aplikacija o kojima nije ni sanjao - na primjer, prebacivanje telefona i elektronički računari koriste binarne znamenke i logičke elemente koji se oslanjaju na Booleovu logiku za svoj dizajn i rad. Pokušao je i s općom metodom vjerojatnosti, koja bi iz danih vjerojatnosti bilo kojeg sistema događaja omogućila utvrđivanje posljedične vjerojatnosti bilo kojeg drugog događaja logički povezanog s danim događajima.

1857. Boole je izabran za člana Kraljevskog društva. Uticajni Traktat o diferencijalnim jednadžbama pojavio se 1859. godine, a sljedeće godine slijedio je njegov nastavak, Traktat o računu konačnih razlika. Dugo godina korišteni kao udžbenici, ova djela utjelovljuju razradu važnijih Booleovih otkrića.

Boole je obolio od upale pluća nakon što je hodao tri milje od svoje kuće do Queen's Collegea u olujnoj oluji 24. novembra 1864. Umro je 8. decembra.

Ovaj članak je posljednji put revidirao i ažurirao Erik Gregersen, stariji urednik.


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Abdüsselam: (1926 -) Pakistanlı Fizik Bilgini İlk nobel ödülü alan müslüman bilim adamı.

Ahmed Bin Musa: (10. yüzyıl) Sistem mühendisliğinin Öncüsü. Astronom ve Mekanikçi.

Akşemseddin: (1389 - 1459) Pasteur'den önce Mikrobu bulan ilk bilim adamı. İstanbulun fethinin manevi babasıdır. Fatih sultan Mehmet 'u Hocasıdıru

Ali Bin Abbas: (? - 994) 1000 sene önce ilk kanser ameliyatını yapan bilim adamı. Kılcal damar sitemini ilk defa ortaya atan bilim adamıdır. Eski çağın en büyük hekimlerinden olan hipokratesin (Hipokrat) Doğum olayı görüşünü kökünden yıktı.

Ali Bin İsa: (11. yüzyıl) İlk defa göz hastalıkları hakkında eser veren müslüman bilim adamı.

Ali Bin Rıdvan: (? - 1067) Batıya tedavi metodlarını öğreten islam alimi.

Ali Kuşçu: (? - 1474) Ünlü Bir türk astronomi ve matematik bilginidir.

Ammar: (11 yüzyıl) İlk katarak ameliyatını kendine has biçimde yapan müslüman bilim adamı.

Battani: (858 - 929) Dünyanın en meşhur 20 astrononumdan biri trigonometrinin mucidi, sinus ve kosinüs tabirlerini kullanan ilg bilgin.

Beyruni: (973 - 1051) Dünyanın döndüğünü ilk bulan bilim adamı ümit burnu, amerika ve japonyanın varlığından bahseden ilk bilim adamı. Beyruni amerika kıtasının varlığını kristof colomb'un Keşfinden 500 sene önce bildirmiştir. Matematik, Jeoloji, Coğrafya, Tıp, Felsefe, Fizik, Astronomi gibi dallarda eserler yazmıştır. Çağın En Büyük Alimidir.

Bitruci: (13. yüzyıl) Kopernik'e yol açan öncülük eden astronom bilim adamı.

Cabir Bin Eflah: (12. yüzyıl) Ortaçağın büyük matematik ve astronom bilginidir. Çubuklu güneş saatini bulan ilk bilim adamıdır.

Cabir Bin Hayyan: (721 - 805) Atom bombası fikrinin ilk mucidi ve kimyanın babası sayılır. Maddenin i Küçük parçası atomun parçalana bileciğini bundan 1200 sene önce söylemiştir.

Cahiz: (776 - 869) Zooloji İlminin öncülerindendir. Hayvan gübresinden amonyak elde etmiştir.

Cezeri: (1136 - 1206) Illk sistem za upravljanje i slične sibernetike i elektroniku Bilgisayarın babası oysa bilgisayarın babası yanlış olarak ingiliz matematike Charles Babbage olarak bilinir ..

Demiri: (1349 - 1405) Povratak na 400 lokacija i više zooloji ansiklopedisini yazan alimdir. Hayatül hayavan isimli kitabı yazmıştır.

Dinaveri: (815 - 895) Botanikçi Ve astronom bir alim olarak bilinir.

Ebu Kamil cauca: (? - 951) Avrupaya matematiği öğreten islam bilgini.

Ebu'l Fida: (1271 - 1331) Büyük Bir bilgin tarihçi ve coğrafyacıdır.

Ebu'l Vefa: (940 - 998) Matematika i astronomija bilginidir trigonometrije tanjant, kotanjant, sekant i kosekantı kazandıran matematika bilginidir.

Ebu Maşer: (785-886) Med-cezir olayını (gel-git) ilk keşfeden bilgindir.

Evliya Çelebi: (1611 - 1682) Büyük Türk seyyahı ve meşhur seyahatnamenin yazarıdır.

Farabi: (870 - 950) Ses olayını ilk defa fiziki yönden ele alıp açıklayıp izah getiren ilk bilgindir.

Fatih Sultan Mehmet: (1432 - 1481) Istanbul öküz ve 700 asker ancak çekebiliyordu ..

Fergani: (9. yüzyıl) Ekliptik meyli ilk defa tesbit eden astronomi alimi.

Gıyasüddin Cemşid: (? - 1429) Matematik alimi. Ondalık kesir sistemini bulan çemşid cebir ve astronomi alimi.

Harizmi: (780 - 850) İlk cebir kitabını yazan ve batıya cebiri öğreten bilgin. Adı algoritmaya isim oldu rakamları Avrupa 'ya öğreten bilgin. Cebiri sistemleştiren Bilgin.

Hasan Bin Musa: ( -) Dünyanın çevresini ölçen, üç kardeşler olarak bilinen üç kardeşten biri ..

Hazini: (6 - 7 dana) Yerçekimi ve terazilerle ilgili izahlarda bulunan bilgin.

Hazerfen Ahmed Čelebi: (17. januar) Havada uçan ilk Türk. Planörcülüğün öncüsü.

Huneyn Bin İshak: (809 - 873) Pogledaj doktorlarına öncülük yapan bilgin.

İbni Avvam: (8. yüzyıl) Tarım alanında ortaçağ boyunca kendini kabul ettiren bilgin.

İbni Battuta: (1304 - 1369) Ülke ülke, kıta kıta dolaşan büyük bir seyyah.

İbni Baytar: (1190 - 1248) Ortaçağın en büyük botanikçisi ve eczacısıdır.

İbni Cessar: (? - 1009) Cüzzam hastalığının sebeb ve tedavilerini 900 sene önce açıklayan müslüman doktor.

İbni Ebi Useybia: (1203 - 1270) Tarif Tarihi hakkında eşsiz bir eser veren doktor.

İbni Fazıl: (739 - 805) 12 asır önce ilk kağıt fabrikasını kuran vezir.

İbni Firnas: (? - 888) Wright kardeşlerden önce 1000 sene önce ilk uçağı yapıp uçmayı gerçekleştiren alim.

İbni Haldun: (1332 - 1406) Tarihi ilim haline getiren sosyolojiyi kuran mütefekkir. Psikolojiyi tarihe uygulamış, ilk defa tarih felsefesi yapan büyük bir islam tarihçisidir. Sosyolog ve şehircilik uzmanı.

İbni Hatip: (1313 - 1374) Vebanın bulaşıcı hastalık olduğunu ilmi yoldan açıklayan doktor.

İbni Havkal: (10. yüzyıl) 10 asır önce ilmi değeri yüksek bir coğrafya kitabı yazan alim.

İbni Heysem: (965 - 1051) Optik ilminin kurucusu büyük fizikçi. İslam dünyasının en büyük fizikçisi, batılı bilginlerin öncüsü, göz ve görme sistemlerine açıklık kazandıran alim. Galile teleskopunun arkasındaki isim.

İbni Karaka: (? - 1100) Dokuzyüz yıl önce torna tezgahı yapan bilgin.

İbni Macit: (15. yüzyıl) Ünlü bir denizci ve coğrafyacı. Vasco da Gama onun bilgilerinden ve rehberliğinden istifade ederek hindistana ulaştı.

İbni Rüşd: (1126 - 1198) Büyük bir doktor, astronom i matematika.

İbni Sina: (980 - 1037) Doktorların sultanı. Eserleri Avrupa üniversitelerinde 600 sene temel kitap olarak okutulan dahi doktor. Hastalık yayan küçük organizmalar, civa ile tedavi, pastör 'e ışık tutması, ilaç bilim ustası, dış belirtilere dayanarak teşhis koyma, botanik ve zooloji ile ilgilendi, Fizikle ilgilendi, jeoloji ilminin babası

İbni Türk: (9. yüzyıl) Cebirin temelini atan islam bilgini.

İbni Yunus: (? - 1009) Galile'den önce sarkacı bulan astronom.

İbni Zuhr: (1091 - 1162) Endülüsün en büyük müslüman doktorlarından asırlarca Avrupa'da eserleri ders kitabı olarak okutuldu.

İbnünnefis: (1210 - 1288) Küçük kan dolaşımını bulan ünlü islam alimi.

İbrahim Efendi: (18. yüzyıl) Osmanlılarda ilk denizaltıyı gerçekleştiren mühendis.

İbrahim Hakkı: (1703 - 1780) Büyük bir sosyolog, psikolog, astronom ve fen adamı. En ünlü eseri marifetnâme, Burçlardan, insan fizyoloji ve anatomisinden bahsetmiştir.

İdrisi: (1100 - 1166) Yedi asır önce bügünküne çok benzeyen dünya haritasını çizen coğrafyacı.

İhvanü-s Safa: (10. yüzyıl) çeşitli ilim dallarını içine alan 52 kitaptan meydana gelen bir ansiklopedi yazan ilim adamı. Astronomija, Coğrafya, Musiki, Ahlâk, Felfese kitapları yazmıştır.

İsmail Gelenbevi: (1730 - 1791) 18 yüzyılda osmanlıların en güçlü matematikçilerinden.

İstahri: (10. yüzyıl) Minyatürlü coğrafya kitabı yazan bilgin.

Kadızade Rumi: (1337 - 1430) Çağını aşan büyük bir matematikçi ve astronomi bilgini. Osmanlının ve Türklerin ilk astronomudur.

Kambur Vesim: (? - 1761) Verem mikrobunu Robert Koch'dan 150 sena önce keşfeden ünlü doktor.

Katip Čelebi: (1609 - 1657) Osmalılarda rönesansın müjdecisi coğrafyacı ve fikir adamı.

Kazvini: (1203 - 1283) Ortaçağın Herodot'u müslümanların Plinius'u, astronom i coğrafyacı bilgin.

Kemaleddin Farisi: (? - 1320) İbni Heysem ayarında büyük islam matematikçisi, fizikçi ve astronom.

Kerhi: (? - 1029) İslam Matematikçilerinden.

Kindi: (803 - 872) İbni Heysem'e kadar za optičke slike prilagođen je izvornoj poruci. Fizik, felsefe i matematika alanında yaptığı hizmetleri ile tanınmıştır.

Kurşunoğlu Behram: (1922 -?) Genelleştirilmiş izafiyet teorisini ortaya atan beyin güçlerimizden. Halen prof. Behram Kurşunoğlu Amerika na Floridi univerzitetske teorijske fizike merkezinde başkanlık yapmaktadır.

Lagarî Hasan Çelebi: (17. yüzyıl) Füzeciliğin atası, osmanlılarda ilk defa füze ile uçan bilgin.


Macriti: (? - 1007) Matematikte başkan kabul edilen Endülüslü Matematikçi ve astronom.

Mağribi: (16. yüzyıl) Çağının en büyük matematikçilerinden. Mağribinin eseri olan Tuhfetü'l Ada isimli kitabında üçgen, dörtgen, daire ve diger geometrik şekillerinin yüz ölçümlerini bulmak için metodlar gösterilmiştir.

Maašalah: (? - 815) Mešur islam astronomlarındandır. Usturlabla İlgili ilk eseri veren bilgindir.

Mes'ûdi: (? - 956) Kıymeti ancak 18. 19. Yüzyıllarda anlaşılan büyük tarihçi ve coğrafyacı. Mesudi günümüzden 1000 sene önce depremlerin oluş sebebini açıklamıştır. Mesûdinin eserlerinden yel değirmenlerinin de müslümanların icadı olduğu anlaşılmıştır.

Mimar Sinan: (1489 - 1588) Seviyesine bugün dahi ulaşılamayan dahi mimar. Mimar Sinan tam manası ile bir sanat dahisidir.

Muhammed Bin Musa: (9. yüzyıl) Dünyanın Çevresini ölçen 3 kardeşten biri. Matematikçi ve astronom.

Mürsiyeli İbrahim: (15. yüzyıl) Piri reisten 52 sene önce bugünkü uygun Akdeniz haritasını çizen haritacı. Günümüzden 500 sene önce kadar önce yaşamıştır.

Nasirüddin Tusi: (1201 - 1274) Trigonometrijski sahasında ilk defa eser veren, Merağa rasathanesini kuran, matematik ve astronom.

Necmeddinü-l Mısri: (13 yüzyıl) Çağının ünlü astronomlarından.

Ömer Hayyam: (? - 1123) Cebirdeki binom formülünü bulan bilgin. Newton veya binom formülünün keşfi ömer hayyama aittir.

Piri Reis: (1465 - 1554) 400 sene önce bu günküne çok yakın dünya haritasını çizen büyük coğrafyacı. Amerika kıtasının varlığını kristof kolomb 'dan önce bilen ünlü denizci.

Razi: (864 - 925) Keşifleri ile ün salan asırlar boyunca Avrupa'ya ders veren kimyager doktor ünlü klinikçi. Devrinin En büyük bilgini İbni Sina ile aynı ayarda bir bilgin.

Sabit Bin Kurra: (? - 901) Newton i čekirajte i diferencirajte hesabını keşfeden bilgin. Dünyanın çapını doğru olarak hesaplayan ilk islam bilgini. Matemetik ve astronomi alimi.

Sabuncu Oğlu Şerefeddin: (1386 - 1470) Fatih devrinin ünlü doktor ve cerrahlarındandır. Deneysel fizyolojinin öncülerindendir.

Seydi Ali Reis: (? - 1562) Nije objavljeno, matematika i astronomija alimidir.

Setemsettin Halili: (? - 1397) Büyük bir astronomi bilginidir.

Haihabettin Karafi: (? - 1285) orta çağın en büyük fizikçi ve hukukçularından.

Takiyyüddin Er Rasit: (1521 - 1585) İstanbul rasathanesi ilk kuran çağından çok ileride asrın önde gelen astronomi alimidir.

Uluğ Bey: (1394 -1449) Çağının en büyük astronomu ve trigonometride yeni çığır açan ünlü bir alim ve hükümdar.

Zehravi: (936 -1013) 1000 sene önce ilk çağdaş ameliyatı yapan böbrek taşlarının nasıl çıkarılacağını ve ilk böbrek ameliyatını gerçekleştiren bilim adamı ..

Zerkali: (1029 - 1087) Keşif ve hizmetleri ile ün salmış astronomi alimidir.


Činjenice o Zakonu o Amerikancima sa invaliditetom

Naslov I Zakona o Amerikancima s invaliditetom iz 1990. zabranjuje privatnim poslodavcima, državnim i lokalnim vlastima, agencijama za zapošljavanje i sindikatima diskriminaciju kvalificiranih osoba s invaliditetom u postupcima prijave za posao, zapošljavanju, otpuštanju, napredovanju, naknadama, obuci za posao i drugim uvjetima , uslove i privilegije zapošljavanja. ADA pokriva poslodavce sa 15 ili više zaposlenih, uključujući državne i lokalne uprave. Odnosi se i na agencije za zapošljavanje i na organizacije rada. ADA -ini standardi nediskriminacije primjenjuju se i na zaposlenike u federalnom sektoru prema odjeljku 501 Zakona o rehabilitaciji, sa izmjenama i dopunama, te njegovim provedbenim pravilima.

Osoba sa invaliditetom je osoba koja:

  • Ima fizičko ili mentalno oštećenje koje značajno ograničava jednu ili više velikih životnih aktivnosti
  • Ima evidenciju o takvom umanjenju vrijednosti ili
  • Smatra se da ima takvo umanjenje vrijednosti.

Kvalificirani zaposlenik ili podnositelj zahtjeva s invaliditetom je pojedinac koji sa ili bez razumnog smještaja može obavljati bitne funkcije dotičnog posla. Razumni smještaj može uključivati, ali nije ograničen na:

  • Omogućavanje pristupačnosti i upotrebe osoba s invaliditetom postojećih objekata koje koriste zaposlenici.
  • Restrukturiranje posla, mijenjanje rasporeda rada, premještaj na upražnjeno radno mjesto
  • Nabavka ili modifikacija opreme ili uređaja, prilagođavanje ili modifikovanje ispita, materijala za obuku ili politike i pružanje kvalifikovanih čitalaca ili tumača.

Poslodavac je dužan učiniti razumnu prilagodbu poznatom invaliditetu kvalificiranog podnositelja zahtjeva ili zaposlenika ako to ne bi nametnulo "nepotrebne poteškoće" u poslovanju poslodavca. Razumni smještaj prilagođavanja su ili modifikacije koje pruža poslodavac kako bi se osobama s invaliditetom omogućilo da uživaju jednake mogućnosti zaposlenja. Smještaj se razlikuje ovisno o potrebama pojedinačnog podnositelja zahtjeva ili zaposlenika. Neće svim osobama s invaliditetom (ili čak svim osobama s istim invaliditetom) biti potreban isti smještaj. Na primjer:

  • Gluvim podnosiocima zahteva može biti potreban tumač za znakovni jezik tokom razgovora za posao.
  • Zaposlenom sa dijabetesom možda će trebati redovno zakazane pauze tokom radnog dana kako bi se pravilno hranio i pratio nivo šećera u krvi i inzulina.
  • Slijepom zaposleniku će možda trebati neko da pročita informacije objavljene na oglasnoj ploči.
  • Zaposleniku s rakom možda će trebati dopust radi zračenja ili kemoterapije.

Poslodavac ne mora osigurati razumnu prilagodbu ako nameće "nepotrebne poteškoće". Neprimjerene poteškoće definirane su kao radnje koje zahtijevaju značajne poteškoće ili troškove kada se posmatraju u svjetlu faktora kao što su veličina poslodavca, finansijska sredstva i priroda i struktura njegovog poslovanja.

Poslodavac nije dužan sniziti standarde kvalitete ili proizvodnje da bi napravio smještaj, niti je poslodavac dužan pružiti predmete za ličnu upotrebu, poput naočala ili slušnih aparata.

Poslodavac općenito ne mora osigurati razuman smještaj osim ako ga osoba sa invaliditetom nije tražila. ako poslodavac vjeruje da zdravstveno stanje uzrokuje performanse ili ponašanje, može pitati zaposlenika kako riješiti problem i treba li zaposleniku razumna prilagodba. Nakon što se zatraži razumna prilagodba, poslodavac i pojedinac trebaju razgovarati o individualnim potrebama i identificirati odgovarajuću razumnu prilagodbu. Tamo gdje bi radilo više od jednog smještaja, poslodavac može izabrati onaj koji je jeftiniji ili ga je lakše osigurati.

Naslov I ADA -e također pokriva:

    Medicinski pregledi i upiti
    Poslodavci ne mogu pitati kandidate za posao o postojanju, prirodi ili ozbiljnosti invaliditeta. Kandidati se mogu pitati o njihovoj sposobnosti da obavljaju određene funkcije posla. Ponuda za posao može biti uvjetovana rezultatima ljekarskog pregleda, ali samo ako je pregled potreban za sve zaposlene na sličnim poslovima. Lekarski pregledi zaposlenih moraju biti povezani sa poslom i u skladu sa poslovnim potrebama poslodavca.

Takođe je nezakonito uzvratiti pojedincu zbog protivljenja praksi zapošljavanja koje diskriminišu na osnovu invaliditeta ili zbog podnošenja tužbe za diskriminaciju, svjedočenja ili učešća na bilo koji način u istrazi, postupku ili parnici prema ADA -i.

Federalni porezni poticaji za poticanje zapošljavanja osoba s invaliditetom i za promicanje pristupačnosti javnog smještaja


Definicija invaliditeta

Prema većini zakona o zapošljavanju, poput Zakona o diskriminaciji prema godinama u zapošljavanju ili Glave VII, prilično je očigledno da li je osoba dio zaštićene klase. Međutim, prema ADA -i, malo je složenije utvrditi je li osoba dio zaštićene klase.

ADA ima trostruku definiciju invaliditeta. Ako je bilo koji od tri zupca zadovoljen, pojedinac se računa kao invalid. Definicija invaliditeta ADA zasnovana je na definiciji "hendikepa" Zakona o rehabilitaciji. Presuda prema Zakonu o rehabilitaciji ili ADA -u smatra se presedan za drugu.

ADA -ina prva definicija invaliditeta kaže da je osoba s invaliditetom osoba koja ima mentalno ili fizičko oštećenje koje sprečava sudjelovanje u velikim životnim aktivnostima. Ako pojedinac ima evidenciju ili istoriju takvog oštećenja, smatra se invalidom. Konačno, ako se za pojedinca smatra da ima mentalno ili fizičko oštećenje, smatra se da je invalid prema prvoj ADA definiciji invaliditeta.

ADA definira fizičko oštećenje kao fiziološki poremećaj ili stanje, anatomski gubitak ili kozmetičko oštećenje koje utječe na jedan ili više ovih tjelesnih sistema:

  • Neurološki
  • Organi sa posebnim osjetilima
  • Mišićno -koštani
  • Digestive
  • Kardiovaskularni
  • Respiratorni
  • Reproduktivna
  • Hemijski i limfni
  • Endokrini
  • Skin
  • Genitourinarni

ADA definira mentalno oštećenje kao bilo koji psihološki ili mentalni poremećaj, poput emocionalne ili mentalne bolesti, mentalne retardacije, sindroma organskog mozga i poteškoća u učenju. Američka Komisija za jednake mogućnosti zapošljavanja i ADA propisi ne nude popis svih posebnih uslova koji se smatraju oštećenjima jer je teško biti sveobuhvatan. Također, bit će teško uključiti nove poremećaje koji se mogu razviti u budućnosti.

ADA je uključivala primjere pokrivenih mentalnih i fizičkih oštećenja. Neka od ovih oštećenja uključuju:

  • Mišićna distrofija
  • Ortopedska, govorna i slušna oštećenja
  • Oštećenja vida
  • Srčana bolest
  • Epilepsija
  • Cerebralna paraliza
  • Mentalna retardacija
  • Ovisnost o drogi
  • HIV
  • Specifične teškoće u učenju
  • Dijabetes

Rak, multipla skleroza i druga ozbiljna oštećenja ne smatraju se invaliditetom.

Prema ADA -i, oštećenje mora biti fiziološki ili mentalni poremećaj. Depresija, stres i slična stanja samo se ponekad smatraju oštećenjima prema ADA. Da li se depresija i stres smatraju oštećenjima ovisi o tome jesu li posljedica dokumentiranog mentalnog ili fiziološkog poremećaja ili su posljedica pritiska u privatnom životu ili na poslu. Oštećenje mora bitno ograničiti barem jednu veliku životnu aktivnost.

Ako želite saznati više o listi invaliditeta obuhvaćenih ADA -om, možete postaviti svoju pravnu potrebu na UpCounsel -ovom tržištu. UpCounsel na svoju web stranicu prima samo prvih 5 posto pravnika. Advokati na UpCounsel -u dolaze sa pravnih fakulteta poput Harvard Law -a i Yale Law -a i imaju prosječno 14 godina pravnog iskustva, uključujući rad sa ili u ime kompanija kao što su Google, Menlo Ventures i Airbnb.


NESREĆNE OKOLNOSTI

U oktobru 1891, dvije godine prije Doma za siročad u Warm Springsu, Državnik izvijestio je o tragediji da je „šestero nesretne djece bačeno na okrug“. Šestorica, koja se zovu Jewett djeca, otkrivena su u bijedi među prolaznicima iz Ajove i Montane u blatnjavoj kolibi blizu ulice Five Mile Road. Njihova majka je napustila muža i pobjegla sa zetom.

Troje drugih poslanih na siromašnu farmu istog oktobra bili su Neal djeca iz Arnold Addition iz North Enda. Elvira Neal, stara 3 godine, otkrivena je s dvoje mlade braće i sestara, koji su spavali na zaprljanom kauču. Njihova majka je osuđena kao "izopačeni" njihov otac, "poluludi" zatvorenik u okružnom zatvoru.

U međuvremenu, na ženskom odjelu mlada majka po imenu Rose Storms brinula se o svojoj kćerkici. Iz Minnesote, Storms je vlakom krenula za Boise kako bi čekala udvarača koji nikada nije stigao. Oluja i dijete pridružili su se još 23 na siromašnoj farmi u Adi. Rečeno je da je jedan stariji muškarac bio demonstrant u "vojsci" Jacoba Coxeya, otrcanom maršu nezaposlenih na zgradu Kapitola SAD -a. Drugi je bio Cornelius Sproule iz Nampa, za koga se sumnjalo da je lud.


Zakon o istoriji Amerikanaca sa invaliditetom

Istorija ADA nije započela 26. jula 1990. godine na ceremoniji potpisivanja u Bijeloj kući. To nije počelo 1988. godine kada je prvi ADA uveden u Kongresu. Priča o ADA -i započela je davno u gradovima i naseljima diljem Sjedinjenih Država, kada su osobe s invaliditetom počele izazivati ​​društvene barijere koje su ih isključivale iz njihovih zajednica, i kada su se roditelji djece s teškoćama u razvoju počeli boriti protiv isključenosti i segregacije svoje djece. . Počelo je osnivanjem lokalnih grupa za zagovaranje prava osoba sa invaliditetom. Započelo je uspostavom pokreta za nezavisni život koji je osporio mišljenje da osobe s invaliditetom treba biti institucionaliziran i koji se borio za i pružao usluge osobama s invaliditetom da žive u zajednici.

ADA ne duguje svoje pravo rođenja ne jednoj osobi, ili nekolicini njih, već hiljadama ljudi koji čine pokret za prava osoba s invaliditetom – ljudi koji su godinama radili na organizaciji i prisustvovanju protestima, lizanju koverti, slanju upozorenja, sastavljanje zakona, govorenje, svjedočenje, pregovaranje, lobiranje, podnošenje tužbi, hapšenje – čineći sve što mogu iz razloga u koji su vjerovali. Previše je ljudi čija su predanost i naporan rad doprinijeli prelasku ovog historijskog djela zakonodavstvo o građanskim pravima osoba sa invaliditetom kako bi se moglo dati odgovarajuće ime po imenu. Bez rada tolikog broja#8211 bez pokreta za prava osoba s invaliditetom – ne bi bilo ADA.

Pokret za prava osoba s invaliditetom, u posljednjih nekoliko decenija, učinio je nepravde sa kojima se suočavaju osobe s invaliditetom vidljive američkoj javnosti i političarima. To je zahtijevalo preokretanje stoljetne istorije “ izvan vidokruga, van pameti ” kojoj je segregacija osoba s invaliditetom služila za promicanje. Pokret za prava osoba s invaliditetom usvojio je mnoge strategije pokreta za građanska prava prije njega.

Poput Afroamerikanaca koji su sjedili na odvojenim šalterima za ručak i odbili da se presele u zadnji dio autobusa, i osobe s invaliditetom sjedile su u saveznim zgradama, ometale kretanje nedostupnih autobusa i marširale ulicama u znak protesta protiv nepravde. I poput pokreta za građanska prava prije njega, pokret za prava osoba s invaliditetom tražio je pravdu na sudovima i u dvoranama Kongresa.

Sa pravne perspektive, duboki i historijski pomak u javnoj politici osoba sa invaliditetom dogodio se 1973. godine donošenjem Odjeljka 504. Zakona o rehabilitaciji iz 1973. godine. Odjeljak 504, koji je zabranio diskriminaciju na osnovu invaliditeta od strane korisnika federalnih fondova, napravljen je po uzoru na prethodne zakone koji su zabranjivali rasnu, etničku pripadnost i diskriminaciju na osnovu pola od strane korisnika federalnih fondova.

Po prvi put, isključenje i segregacija osoba s invaliditetom smatrano je diskriminacijom. Ranije se pretpostavljalo da su problemi s kojima se suočavaju osobe s invaliditetom, poput nezaposlenosti i nedostatka obrazovanja, neizbježne posljedice fizičkih ili mentalnih ograničenja koja nameće sama invalidnost. Donošenje Odjeljka 504 svjedoči da je Kongres priznao da inferiorni društveni i ekonomski status osoba s invaliditetom nije posljedica samog invaliditeta, već je rezultat društvenih barijera i predrasuda. Kao i kod rasnih manjina i žena, Kongres je priznao da su zakoni neophodni za iskorenjivanje diskriminatornih politika i praksi.

Odeljak 504 je takođe bio istorijski jer se po prvi put na osobe sa invaliditetom gledalo kao na klasu i manjinsku grupu. Ranije je javnu politiku karakteriziralo rješavanje potreba određenih invaliditeta po kategorijama na osnovu dijagnoze. Svaka grupa s invaliditetom smatrana je zasebnom, s različitim potrebama. Odjeljak 504 prepoznaje da, iako postoje velike fizičke i psihičke varijacije u različitim smetnjama u razvoju, osobe s invaliditetom kao grupa su se suočile sa sličnom diskriminacijom pri zapošljavanju, obrazovanju i pristupu društvu. Na osobe s invaliditetom gledalo se kao na legitimnu manjinu, podložnu diskriminaciji i zaslužuju osnovnu zaštitu građanskih prava. Ovaj koncept statusa klase ” bio je kritičan u razvoju pokreta i zalaganja. Koalicija osoba s invaliditetom stalno se nalazi na kušnji pokušajima uklanjanja zaštite za određene grupe. Istorija ADA -e svjedoči o posvećenosti pokreta solidarnosti među ljudima sa različitim invaliditetom.

After Section 504 established the fundamental civil right of non-discrimination in 1973, the next step was to define what non-discrimination meant in the context of disability. How was it the same or different from race and sex discrimination? The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) had been given the task of promulgating regulations to implement Section 504, which would serve as guidelines for all other federal agencies. These regulations became the focus of attention for the disability rights movement for the next four years. During this time the movement grew in sophistication, skill and visibility. The first task was to assure that the regulations provided meaningful anti-discrimination protections. It was not enough to remove policy barriers – it was imperative that the regulations mandated affirmative conduct to remove architectural and communication barriers and provide accommodations.

The second step was to force a recalcitrant agency to get the regulations out. All over the country people with disabilities sat-in at HEW buildings. The longest sit-in was in San Francisco, lasting 28 days. A lawsuit was filed, hearings before Congress were organized, testimony was delivered to Congressional committees, negotiations were held, letters were written. The disability community mobilized a successful campaign using a variety of strategies, and on May 4, 1977 the Section 504 regulations were issued. It is these regulations which form the basis of the ADA. In the early 1980’s the disability community was called upon to defend the hard-fought-for Section 504 regulations from attack. After taking office President Reagan established the Task Force on Regulatory Relief under the leadership of then Vice President George Bush. The mission of the Task Force was to “de-regulate” regulations which were burdensome on businesses. The Section 504 regulations were chosen for “de-regulation.” This news sent a current throughout the disability movement across the country, which quickly mobilized a multi-tier strategy to preserve the regulations.

For two years, representatives from the disability community met with Administration officials to explain why all of the various de-regulation proposals must not be adopted. These high level meetings would not have continued or been successful without the constant bombardment of letters to the White House from people with disabilities and parents of children with disabilities around the country protesting any attempt to de-regulate Section 504.

After a remarkable show of force and commitment by the disability community, the Administration announced a halt to all attempts to de-regulate Section 504. This was a tremendous victory for the disability movement. Those two years proved to be invaluable in setting the stage for the ADA. Not only were the Section 504 regulations, which form the basis of the ADA, preserved, but it was at this time that high officials of what later became the Bush administration received an education on the importance of the concepts of non-discrimination contained in the Section 504 regulations in the lives of people with disabilities.

During much of the 1980’s, the disability community’s efforts in Washington were focused on reinstating civil rights protections which had been stripped away by negative Supreme Court decisions. The longest legislative battle was fought over the Civil Rights Restoration Act (CRRA), first introduced in 1984 and finally passed in 1988. The CRRA sought to overturn Grove City College v Bell, a Supreme Court decision that had significantly restricted the reach of all the statutes prohibiting race, ethnic origin, sex or disability discrimination by recipients of federal fund. Because the court decision affected all of these constituencies, the effort to overturn the decision required a coalition effort. For the first time, representatives of the disability community worked in leadership role s with representatives of minority and woman’s groups on a major piece of civil rights legislation.

Working in coalition again, in 1988, the civil rights community amended the Fair Housing Act (FHA) to improve enforcement mechanisms, and for the first time disability anti-discrimination provisions were included in a traditional civil rights statute banning race discrimination. During these years working on the CRRA and the FHA, alliances were forged within the civil rights community that became critical in the fight for passage of the ADA. Because of its commitment to disability civil rights, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights played an important leadership role in securing passage of the ADA.

During the 1980’s, it also became clear to the disability community that it should play a very active role in Supreme Court litigation under Section 504. The first Section 504 case which was decided by the Supreme Court in 1979, Southeastern Community College v. Davis, 442 U.S.397, revealed at best, a lack of understanding, and at worst, a hostility toward even applying the concept of discrimination to exclusion based on disability. In that case, a hearing impaired women was seeking admission to the nursing program of Southeastern Community College. The court found that Ms. Davis’s hearing impairment rendered her unqualified to participate in the program because she would not be able to fully fulfill all of the clinical requirements. However, the Court did not limit itself to the fate= of Ms. Davis, but included within the decision several very broad negative interpretations of Section 504. In fact, the Davis’s decision cast doubt on whether those entities covered by Section 504 would be required to take any affirmative steps to accommodate the needs of persons with disabilities. Contrary to established Court doctrine, the Section 504 regulations that had been issued by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) were given little deference by the Court. Ironically the Court attributed this lack of deference to the fact that HEW had been recalcitrant in issuing the regulations.

After the Davis decision it was clear that the Supreme Court needed to be educated on the issue of disability based discrimination and the role that it plays in people lives. Moreover, it was clear to the disability community that the focus of its efforts in any future Supreme Court litigation must be to reinforce the validity of the 1977 HEW regulations. In the next case to be granted review by the Supreme Court, Consolidated Rail Corporation v. Darrone, 465 U.S.624(1984), the disability community focused its efforts on educating the Court and bolstering the validity of the HEW Regulations interpreting Section 504. The issue in Consolidated Rail Corporations was whether employment discrimination was covered by the anti-discrimination provisions of Section 504. In order to educate the court on the pervasive role of discrimination in the un-employment and under-employment of persons with disabilities, the Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund filed an amicus brief on behalf of 63 national, state and local organizations dedicated to securing the civil rights of persons with disabilities. This amicus brief served not only to educate the courts on discriminatory employment policies and practices, but also to demonstrate to the Court that these issues concern the millions of Americans who were affiliated with the organizations who filed the brief. DREDF also worked very closely with the lawyer representing the disabled person in the lawsuit in order to present to the court the very best legal arguments on the validity of the 1977 HEW regulations which had found that employment discrimination was covered by provision of Section 504. The decision in Consolidated Rail Corporation v. Darrone marked a significant victory for the disability rights community. The court found that employment discrimination was in fact prohibited by Section 504, but equally importantly the Court found that the regulations issued in 1977 by HEW were entitled to great deference by the courts. It is these regulations which were elevated by the Court in Consolidated Rail Corporation which formed the basis of the ADA.

The disability community continued its active involvement in Section 504 cases in the Supreme Court throughout the 1980’s. In 1987, the Court was presented with the issue of whether people with contagious diseases are covered by Section 504. Although the case involved a women with tuberculosis, it became clear through out the country that and the court’s decision in this case would be critical for protection against discrimination by people with HIV infection. The disability rights community worked closely with the lawyers representing the woman with tuberculous as well as filing numerous amicus briefs in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court’s decision in School Board of Nassau County v. Arline, 480 U.S.273,(1987), became the foundation for coverage of people with AIDS under Section 504 and the ADA. Working on the Arline case also provided a critical opportunity for lawyers in the disability rights community and lawyers in the AIDS community to work closely together and form alliances that would carry through and prove to be critical in the battle to secure passage of the ADA.

During the 1980’s the disability community was also successful in overturning by legislation several disability – specific negative Supreme Court rulings. Legislation was passed to reinstate the coverage of anti-discrimination provisions to all airlines, the right to sue states for violations of Section 504, and the right of parents to recover attorney fees under the Education for Handicapped Children’s Act (now called IDEA). These legislative victories further advanced the reputation of the disability community and its advocates in Congress. The respect for the legal, organizing, and negotiations skills gained during these legislative efforts formed the basis of the working relationships with members of Congress and officials of the Administration, that proved indispensable in passing the ADA. Whether by friend or foe, the disability community was taken seriously – it had become a political force to be contended with in Congress, in the voting booth, and in the media.

The ADA, as we know it today, went through numerous drafts, revisions, negotiations, and amendments since the first version was introduced in 1988. Spurred by a draft bill prepared by the National Council on Disability, an independent federal agency whose members were appointed by President Reagan, Senator Weicker and Representative Coelho introduced the first version of the ADA in April 1988 in the 100th Congress.

The disability community began to educate people with disabilities about the ADA and to gather evidence to support the need for broad anti-discrimination protections. A national campaign was initiated to write “discrimination diaries.” People with disabilities were asked to document daily instances of inaccessibility and discrimination. The diaries served not only as testimonials of discrimination, but also to raise consciousness about the barriers to daily living which were simply tolerated as a part of life. Justin Dart, Chair of the Congressional Task Force on the Rights and Empowerment of People with Disabilities, traversed the country holding public hearings which were attended by thousands of people with disabilities, friends, and families documenting the injustice of discrimination in the lives of people with disabilities.

In September 1988, a joint hearing was held before the Senate Subcommittee on Disability Policy and the House Subcommittee on Select Education. Witnesses with a wide variety of disabilities, such as blindness, deafness, Down’s Syndrome and HIV infection, as well as parents of disabled children testified about architectural and communication barriers and the pervasiveness of stereotyping and prejudice. A room which seated over 700 people overflowed with persons with disabilities, parents and advocates. After the hearing, a commitment was made by Senator Kennedy, Chair of the Labor and Human Resources Committee, Senator Harkin, Chair of the Subcommittee on Disability Policy, and Representative Owens of the House Subcommittee on Select Education, that a comprehensive disability civil rights bill would be a top priority for the next Congress. At the same time, both presidential candidates, Vice President Bush and Governor Dukakis, endorsed broad civil rights protections for people with disabilities. The disability community was determined to assure that President Bush would make good on his campaign promise, and reinvoked it repeatedly during the legislative process.

On May 9, 1989 Senators Harkin and Durrenberger and Representatives Coelho and Fish jointly introduced the new ADA in the 101st Congress. From that moment, the disability community mobilized, organizing a multi-layered strategy for passage. A huge coalition was assembled by the Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities (CCD), which included disability organizations, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR), and an array of religious, labor and civic organizations.

A team of lawyers and advocates worked on drafting and on the various and complex legal issues that were continually arising top level negotiators and policy analysts strategized with members of Congress and their staffs disability organizations informed and rallied their members a lobbying system was developed using members of the disability community from around the country witnesses came in from all over the country to testify before Congressional committees lawyers and others prepared written answers to the hundreds of questions posed by members of Congress and by businesses task forces were formed networks were established to evoke responses from the community by telephone or mail protests were planned – the disability rights movement coalesced around this goal: passage of the ADA. From the beginning the “class” concept prevailed – groups representing specific disabilities and specialized issues vowed to work on all of the issues affecting all persons with disabilities. This commitment was constantly put to the test. The disability community as a whole resisted any proposals made by various members of Congress to exclude people with AIDS or mental illness or to otherwise narrow the class of people covered. Even at the eleventh hour, after two years of endless work and a Senate and House vote in favor of the Act, the disability community held fast with the AIDS community to eliminate an amendment which would have excluded food-handlers with AIDS, running the risk of indefinitely postponing the passage or even losing the bill. Likewise, all of the groups, whether it was an issue particularly affecting their constituencies or not, held fast against amendments to water down the transportation provisions. The underlying principle of the ADA was to extend the basic civil rights protections extended to minorities and women to people with disabilities. The 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibited employment discrimination by the private sector against women and racial and ethnic minorities, and banned discrimination against minorities in public accommodations. Before the ADA, no federal law prohibited private sector discrimination against people with disabilities, absent a federal grant or contract.

The job of the disability rights movement during the ADA legislative process was to demonstrate to Congress and the American people the need for comprehensive civil rights protections to eradicate fundamental injustice -to demonstrate not only how this injustice harms the individual subjected to it, but also how it harms our society.

The first hearing in the 101st Senate on the new ADA was an historic event and set the tone for future hearings and lobbying efforts. It was kicked off by the primary sponsors talking about their personal experiences with disability. Senator Harkin spoke of his brother who is deaf, Senator Kennedy of his son, who has a leg amputation, and Representative Coelho, who has epilepsy spoke about how the discrimination he faced almost destroyed him.

The witnesses spoke of their own experiences with discrimination. A young woman who has cerebral palsy, told the Senators about a local movie theater that would not let her attend because of her disability. When her mother called the theater to protest that this attitude “sounded like discrimination,” the theater owner stated “I don’t care what it sounds like.” This story became a symbol for the ADA and was mentioned throughout the floor debates and at the signing. The members and the President related this story to demonstrate that America “does care what it sounds like” and will no longer tolerate this type of discrimination.

A Viet Nam veteran who had been paralyzed during the war and came home using a wheelchair testified that when he got home and couldn’t get out of his housing project, or on the bus, or off the curb because of inaccessibility, and couldn’t get a job because of discrimination he realized he had fought for everyone but himself – and he vowed to fight tirelessly for passage of the ADA. The President of Galludet College, gave compelling testimony about what life is like for someone who is deaf, faced with pervasive communication barriers. The audience was filled with Galludet students who waved their hands in approval.

The committee also received boxes loaded with thousands of letters and pieces of testimony that had been gathered in hearings across the country the summer before from people whose lives had been damaged or destroyed by discrimination.

A woman testified that when she lost her breast to cancer, she also lost her job and could not find another one as a person with a history of cancer. Parents whose small child had died of AIDS testified about how they couldn’t find any undertaker that would bury their child.

At this Senate hearing and in all the many hearings in the House, members of Congress heard from witnesses who told their stories of discrimination. With each story, the level of consciousness was raised and the level of tolerance to this kind of injustice was lowered. The stories did not end in the hearing room. People with disabilities came from around the country to talk to members of Congress, to advocate for the Bill, to explain why each provision was necessary, to address a very real barrier or form of discrimination. Individuals came in at their own expense, slept on floors by night and visited Congressional offices by day. People who couldn’t come to Washington told their stories in letters, attended town meetings and made endless phone calls.

And it was a long haul. After the spectacular Senate vote of 76 to 8 on September 7,1989, the Bill went to the House where it was considered by an unprecedented four Committees. Each Committee had at least one subcommittee hearing, and more amendments to be explained, lobbied and defeated. Grass roots organizing became even more important because by this time many business associations had rallied their members to write members of Congress to oppose or weaken the bill. The perseverance and commitment of the disability movement never wavered. Through many moments of high stress and tension, the community stayed unified. For every hearing the hearing room was full and for every proposed amendment to weaken the bill letters poured in and the halls of Congress were canvassed. As the effective date for Title III of the ADA covering Public Accommodations and Title II of the ADA covering State and Local Government passed by on January 26, 1992. As the effective date for the employment provisions in Title I of the ADA approach on July 26, 1992, the awareness of the ADA and its requirements is heightened. For the first time in the history of our country, or the history of the world, businesses must stop and think about access to people with disabilities. If the ADA means anything, it means that people with disabilities will no longer be out of sight and out of mind. The ADA is based on a basic presumption that people with disabilities want to work and are capable of working, want to be members of their communities and are capable of being members of their communities and that exclusion and segregation cannot be tolerated. Accommodating a person with a disability is no longer a matter of charity but instead a basic issue of civil rights.

While some in the media portray this new era as falling from the sky unannounced, the thousands of men and women in the disability rights movement know that these rights were hard fought for and are long overdue. The ADA is radical only in comparison to a shameful history of outright exclusion and segregation of people with disabilities. From a civil rights perspective the Americans with Disabilities Act is a codification of simple justice.


Settlement and history of the British Virgin Islands

Tortola was first settled in 1648 by Dutch buccaneers who held the island until it was taken over in 1666 by a group of English planters. In 1672 Tortola was annexed to the British-administered Leeward Islands. In 1773 the planters were granted civil government, with an elected House of Assembly and a partly elected Legislative Council, and constitutional courts. The abolition of slavery in the first half of the 19th century dealt a heavy blow to the agricultural economy. In 1867 the constitution was surrendered and a legislative council was appointed that lasted until 1902, when sole legislative authority was vested in the governor-in-council. In 1950 a partly elected and partly nominated legislative council was reinstated. Following the defederation of the Leeward Islands colony in 1956 and the abolition of the office of governor in 1960, the islands became a crown colony. In 1958 the West Indies Federation was established, but the British Virgin Islands declined to join, in order to retain close economic ties with the U.S. islands. Under a constitutional order issued in 1967, the islands were given a ministerial form of government. The constitution was amended in 1977 to permit a greater degree of autonomy in internal affairs.


One of the Last Slave Ship Survivors Describes His Ordeal in a 1930s Interview

More than 60 years after the abolition of slavery, anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston made an incredible connection: She located one of the last survivors of the last slave ship to bring captive Africans to the United States.

Hurston, a known figure of the Harlem Renaissance who would later write the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God, conducted interviews with Oluale Kossola (renamed Cudjo Lewis),਋ut struggled to publish them as a book in the early 1930s. In fact, they were only released to the public in a book called Barracoon: The Story of the Last 𠇋lack Cargo” that came out in May of 2018.

Author Zora Neale Hurston (1903-1960).

Hurston’s book tells the story of Lewis, who was born Oluale Kossola in what is now the West African country of Benin. A member of the Yoruba people, he was only 19 years old when members of the neighboring Dahomian tribe invaded his village, captured him along with others, and marched them to the coast. There, he and about 120 others were sold into slavery and crammed onto the Clotilda, the last slave ship to reach the continental United States.

The Clotilda brought its captives to Alabama in 1860, just a year before the outbreak of the Civil War. Even though slavery was legal at that time in the U.S., the international slave trade was not, and hadn’t been for over 50 years. Along with many European nations, the U.S. had outlawed the practice in 1807, but Lewis’ journey is an example of how slave traders went around the law to continue bringing over human cargo.

To avoid detection, Lewis’ captors snuck him and the other survivors into Alabama at night and made them hide in a swamp for several days. To hide the evidence of their crime, the 86-foot sailboat was then set ablaze on the banks of the Mobile-Tensaw Delta (its remains may have been uncovered in January 2018).

Most poignantly, Lewis’ narrative provides a first-hand account of the disorienting trauma of slavery. After being abducted from his home, Lewis was forced onto a ship with strangers. The abductees spent several months together during the treacherous passage to the United States, but were then separated in Alabama to go to different owners.

A marker to commemorate Cudjo Lewis, considered to be the last surviving victim of the Atlantic slave trade between Africa and the United States, in Mobile, Alabama.

Womump/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 4.0

“We very sorry to be parted from one ’nother,” Lewis told Hurston. “We seventy days cross de water from de Affica soil, and now dey part us from one ’nother. Derefore we cry. Our grief so heavy look lak we cain stand it. I think maybe I die in my sleep when I dream about my mama.”

Lewis also describes what it was like to arrive on a plantation where no one spoke his language, and could explain to him where he was or what was going on. “We doan know why we be bring ’way from our country to work lak dis,” he told Hurston. 𠇎verybody lookee at us strange. We want to talk wid de udder colored folkses but dey doan know whut we say.”

As for the Civil War, Lewis said he wasn’t aware of it when it first started. But part-way through, he began to hear that the North had started a war to free enslaved people like him. A few days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered in April 1865, Lewis says that a group of Union soldiers stopped by a boat on which he and other enslaved people were working and told them they were free.

Erik Overbey Collection, The Doy Leale McCall Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of South Alabama

Lewis expected to receive compensation for being kidnapped and forced into slavery, and was angry to discover that emancipation didn’t come with the promise of 𠇏orty acres and a mule,” or any other kind of reparations. Frustrated by the refusal of the government to provide him with land to live on after stealing him away from his homeland, he and a group of 31 other freepeople saved up money to buy land near Mobile, which they called Africatown.

Hurston’s use of vernacular dialogue in both her novels and her anthropological interviews was often controversial, as some black American thinkers at the time argued that this played to black caricatures in the minds of white people. Hurston disagreed, and refused to change Lewis’ dialect—which was one of the reasons a publisher turned her manuscript down back in the 1930s.

Many decades later, her principled stance means that modern readers get to hear Lewis’ story the way that he told it.


Pogledajte video: Simulasi Reaktor dengan Hysys Part 3: CSTR (Januar 2022).