Informacije

Trajekt Carnifex, 1861


Trajekt Carnifex, 1861

Karta afere u Carnifex Ferryju, Zapadna Virdžinija, 1861

Mapa preuzeta iz Bitke i vođe građanskog rata: I: Sumter to Shiloh, str.145

Povratak na: Indeks subjekata američkog građanskog rata - okršaj na trajektu Carnifex


Državni parkovi Zapadne Virdžinije

Smješten na rubu kanjona rijeke Gauley u blizini Summersvillea, Zapadna Virdžinija, državni park Carnifex Ferry Battlefield važno je mjesto bitke za građanski rat.

Carnifex Ferry Battlefield je službeno mjesto otkrića građanskog rata.

Staza otkrića građanskog rata povezuje više od 300 web stranica u 16 država kako bi inspirirala i podučila priču o građanskom ratu i njegovom strašnom utjecaju na Ameriku. Staza, inicijativa Trusta građanskog rata, omogućava posjetiteljima da istražuju ratišta, povijesne domove, željezničke stanice, groblja, parkove i druga odredišta koja oživljavaju povijest. Za više informacija o Tragu otkrića građanskog rata i drugim programima Trusta građanskog rata nazovite 1-800-CWTRUST.

Rekonstrukcija trajekta bitke kod Carnifexa 1861. Takođe, razne demonstracije žive istorije koje prikazuju vojni život građanskog rata. Na prodaju suveniri i suveniri iz građanskog rata.

Svake druge godine u septembru bitka za Carnifext Ferry se ponavlja na istom tlu kao i izvorni sukob. Domaćin ove rekonstrukcije je kompanija A. iz 36. pješaštva Virginije, najstarije i najautentičnije organizacije za istoriju Zapadne Virdžinije. Događaj privlači stotine najboljih rekonstruktora građanskog rata u zemlji iz nekoliko država i najavljen je kao jedna od najboljih malih rekonstrukcija u istočnim Sjedinjenim Državama.

Dvodnevni događaj uključuje razne demonstracije žive povijesti, poput života u kampu, vojnih vježbi i rekonstrukcije saveznog napada na središte linije Konfederacije.

Posetioci parka se ohrabruju da uđu u kampove i stupe u interakciju sa rekonstruktorima pre rekonstrukcije bitke. Zapravo, pješačke ture, koje vodi jedan od rekonstruktora, organiziraju se svaki dan.


Karta Karta bojnog polja Carnifex Ferry, rijeka Gauley, West Va., 10. rujna 1861: Snage Sjedinjenih Država pod komandom Briga. General W.S. Rosecrans.

Mape u materijalima Zbirke karata objavljene su prije 1922., u produkciji vlade Sjedinjenih Država, ili oboje (pogledajte podatke u katalogu koji prate svaku kartu za informacije o datumu objavljivanja i izvoru). Kongresna biblioteka pruža pristup ovom materijalu u obrazovne i istraživačke svrhe i nije svjesna bilo kakve zaštite autorskih prava SAD -a (vidi Naslov 17 Kodeksa Sjedinjenih Država) ili bilo kakvih drugih ograničenja u materijalima Zbirke karata.

Imajte na umu da je pisana dozvola vlasnika autorskih prava i/ili drugih nosilaca prava (poput prava na publicitet i/ili privatnost) potrebna za distribuciju, reprodukciju ili drugu upotrebu zaštićenih predmeta izvan one koja je dozvoljena poštenom upotrebom ili drugim zakonskim izuzecima. Odgovornost za neovisnu pravnu procjenu predmeta i osiguravanje svih potrebnih dozvola na kraju su osobe koje žele koristiti predmet.

Kreditna linija: Kongresna biblioteka, Odjel za geografiju i karte.


Bitka [uredi | uredi izvor]

Krajem kolovoza 1861. snage Konfederacije pod Brigom. General John B. Floyd prešao je rijeku Gauley i iznenadio 7. pješaštvo u Ohaju pod pukovnikom Erastusom Tylerom na Kessler's Cross Lanes. Nadmašeni, Tylerovi neiskusni ljudi pobjegli su, a Floyd se ulogorio u blizini Carnifex Ferryja. Konfederacije su počele bacati ukope na farmi Henry Patteson (koja se nalazi na rubu kanjona rijeke Gauley blizu Summersvillea). Zabrinut zbog Floydove namjere da povrati dolinu Kanawha, brigadni general Union William S. Rosecrans poveo je tri brigade pješadije južno od Clarksburga kako bi podržao Tylerov pregrupirani puk. Pomaknuvši se na položaj 10. septembra popodne, Rosecrans je krenuo prema Floydovom kampu i napao. Linije Konfederacije odbile su napade, a savezne žrtve bile su znatno veće od branitelja. Snaga Rosecransove artiljerije pokazala se problematičnom, pa je Floyd odlučio da se te noći povuče preko trajekta na južnu stranu rijeke Gauley. Nakon toga se preselio na istok u Meadow Bluff blizu Lewisburga.

Floyd je, nastojeći ukloniti krivicu, odgovornost za poraz prenio na svog suzapovjednika brigadnog generala Henrya A. Wisea, pojačavajući neslaganje koje je obilježilo vrhovno zapovjedništvo Konfederacije u zapadnoj Virdžiniji.


Podijeli Trajektna bitka kod Carnifexa

U julu 1861. snage Unije istisnule su Konfederate iz doline Kanawha i zauzele strateško područje mosta Gauley. U kolovozu su Konfederacije pokrenule protunapad kako bi povratile kontrolu nad dolinom Kanawha i omele pokušaje odvajanja Zapadne Virginije od Virginije. Trupe Konfederacije pod komandom generala Johna Floyda prešle su rijeku Gauley i porazile male snage Unije kod Keslers Cross Lanesa. Floyd se zatim povukao u kamp uz strme zapadne litice rijeke Gauley kod Carnifex Ferryja. General sindikata William Rosecrans okupio je snage od 7.000 da otjera 2.000 Konfederacija. Marširajući južno od Summersvillea, Rosecransove snage stupile su u kontakt s Floydom 10. rujna 1861. Umjesto da koncentrira svoje snage za snažan napad, Rosecrans je proveo dan šaljući svoje brigade jednu po jednu dok su stizale na bojno polje, dozvoljavajući brojno nadjačanim konfederatima za odbijanje komadnih napada. Tokom noći, Konfederati su odlučili da se povuku prije nego što su ujutro mogli biti poraženi. Floyd je uspio pobjeći prije nego što je Rosecrans znao da ga nema.

Žrtve su bile male s obje strane, ali bitka je imala važan politički učinak. Počevši od maja 1861. održavali su se sastanci na kojima se organizira lojalna sindikalistička vlada Virginije sa sjedištem u Wheelingu. U listopadu, neposredno nakon bitke kod Carnifex Ferryja, u područjima pod kontrolom saveznih snaga glasovalo se o odluci hoće li se stvoriti nova država. Povoljan glas bio je ključni korak u formiranju Zapadne Virdžinije. Gubitak kod trajekta Carnifex i okupacija doline Kanawha od strane Konfederacije mogli su promijeniti taj glas.

Ovaj članak je napisao David Bard


Pobunjeničko povlačenje u opatiji Carnifex

Dok su građani širom Sjevera bili uznemireni vijestima o debaklima vojske Unije u Big Bethelu i Bull Run -u u lipnju i srpnju 1861., mogli su se barem utješiti dobrim vijestima iz zapadne Virdžinije. Kako je rat počeo, kontrola bogatih resursa tog regiona bila je ključna za obje strane. Protežući se od planina Allegheny do rijeke Ohio - i obuhvaćajući otprilike trećinu mamutskog Starog dominiona - stajao je ne samo kao jedan od vodećih nacionalnih proizvođača uglja i olova, već i soli. Najmanje dva druga faktora su, međutim, zabrinula konfederalnu vladu Jeffersona Davisa u Richmondu. Zapadna Virdžinija predstavljala je prirodnu barijeru za potencijalne invazije Unije na plodnu dolinu Shenandoah, a mnogi Južnjaci su strahovali da bi gubitak teritorija koji je 85 godina bio dio države bio tragičan simboličan udarac.

Nije bila tajna da su stanovnici zapadne Virdžinije bili prvenstveno unionisti, koji su se ekonomski više poistovjećivali s malim farmama i industrijskim zajednicama u dolini Ohio i na sjeveru, nego s klasom saditelja zavisnih od robova na jugu i istoku. Lincolnova administracija je to brzo prepoznala i poslala potrebne resurse u regiju, uspostavljajući i vojno prisustvo. Možda je Lincolnova najveća briga bilo to što su željezničke pruge B & ampO i sjeverozapadne Virdžinije - ključne trgovačke i transportne arterije između Harpers Ferryja i gradova na rijeci Ohio, Wheelinga i Parkersburga - nastavile nesmetano funkcionirati. Operativci Konfederacije već su spalili nekoliko B & ampO mostova.

Odgovor Unije na prijetnju B & ampO-om otvorio je ono što je postalo šestomjesečna kampanja za zapadnu Virdžiniju. Federalcima je prednjačio hrabri, 34-godišnji West Pointer, general-major George McClellan, komandant departmana Ohio. McClellan nije gubio vrijeme organizirajući vojsku koja bi preuzela kontrolu nad situacijom. U sljedeća dva mjeseca snage Little Mac -a su dominirale i zabilježile impresivne pobjede kod Graftona, Philippija, Laurel Hill -a, Rich Mountain -a i Corrick's Forda. McClellan je zapravo toliko impresionirao Lincolna da je pozvan u Washington krajem jula kako bi oživio vojsku Potomaca nakon Bull Run -a.

McClellan je vojsku Zapadne Virdžinije prepustio sposobnim rukama. Zaostavština generala Williama S. Rosecransa bila bi uništena u Chickamaugi dvije godine kasnije, ali u ovoj fazi rata nastupio je uz postojanost iskusnog veterana. Drugi značajni ljudi bili su Brig. General Jacob D. Cox, Brig. General Thomas A. Morris i budući predsjednik Rutherford B. Hayes, major u 23

Isto se ne može reći za neke zapovjednike Konfederacije, posebno za političke generale Johna Buchanana Floyda i Henryja A. Wisea. Dvojica bivših guvernera Virdžinije nisu se toliko voljeli da su odbili saradnju, čak i kada je saradnja mogla značiti pobjedu. I premda je Floyd bio ratni sekretar predsjednika Jamesa Buchanana, pokazao je minimalnu vojnu sposobnost. "Otkrio sam da je on nesposoban za posao koji je preuzeo kao što bih ja vodio talijansku operu", ismijavao se podređeni, pukovnik Henry Heth.

Dok su federalci sredinom jula pobijedili na Laurel Hillu i Rich Mountain-u, Cox je imao zadatak očistiti pobunjenike iz doline Kanawha na jugu. Uprkos lapsusu u bitci kod Scary Creeka 17. jula, na kraju je uspio, pomalo pomagao Wiseovom nesposobnošću.

Pobunjenici su dva puta pokušali da se ponovo uspostave u dolini Kanawha. Floyd je imao početni uspjeh krajem avgusta-početkom septembra, uspio je iznenadnom pobjedom nad pukovnikom Erastusom Tylerom na Kessler's Cross Lanes 26. augusta, ali je dvije sedmice kasnije na Carnifex Ferryju pretrpio teško taktički poraz od Rosecransa. Njegov drugi pokušaj propao je u novembru, a zapadna Virdžinija je ostala u rukama Unije do kraja rata.

Da je Floyd pokušao iskoristiti svoj trijumf Cross Lanesa, to bi moglo napraviti razliku. No, zabrinut zbog nestašice opskrbe, povukao se natrag do rijeke Gauley i ukorijenio se u onome što je osjećao kao snažan odbrambeni front blizu prelaza Carrifex Ferry. Rosecrans je bio odlučan u namjeri da umanji zamah pobunjenika i krenuo je nakon Floyda s tri brigade 3. rujna. Nakon što je pobijedio Floyda, planirao se pridružiti Coxu u Charlestonu kako bi slomio sve preostale prijetnje pobunjenika.

Rosecransovi ljudi stigli su u Muddlety navečer 9. septembra i počeli su se kretati rano sljedećeg jutra, još uvijek nesigurni gdje su se pobunjenici utaborili. Prevalivši 18 milja tog dana, konačno su naleteli na Floyda oko 15:15. Deseti Ohio, koji je bio dio 1. brigade generala Henryja Benhama, bio je unaprijed i sam je izdržao snažnu početnu paljbu pobunjenika. Pukovnik 10., William H. Lytle, ranjen je dok je naredio puku da ide naprijed, ali je nastavio prenositi naređenja dok je ležao na zemlji. Eventualni dolazak 13. Ohaja i dvije artiljerijske jedinice pomogao je u stabilizaciji situacije saveznih država.

Bitka je trajala četiri sata, pri čemu nijedna strana nije stekla jasnu prednost. Mrak i strmi teren spriječili su posljednji savezni pokušaj skretanja desnog boka pobunjenika. Floyd je ostao prkosan što je njegova premala vojska dobila bitku, ali je priznao oko 20:00. da je topništvo Unije bilo prejako i naredilo je povlačenje preko Gauleyja, u nadi da će se ujediniti sa snagama kojima je zapovijedao Robert E. Lee koji se guraju na zapad iz Lewisburga.

Gubitak kod trajekta Carnifex okončao je sve realne nade Konfederacije u dolini Kanawha. Borbe su se nastavile dva mjeseca, ali je smrt bačena. Zapadna Virdžinija je zvanično dobila državnost u Uniji 20. juna 1863.

Chris Howland je viši urednik za Američki građanski rat.

Prvobitno objavljeno u izdanju od septembra 2014 Američki građanski rat. Za pretplatu kliknite ovdje.


BITKA NA CARNIFEX TRAJEKTU. DIJAGRAM BITKE. LITERATURA.

B, B, B - Carnifexova trajektna cesta, kojom se približila ROSECRANE ' Army.

C - Sporedni put koji se odvaja od puta šest ili osam stotina metara od pobunjeničkog parapeta. Tačka na kojoj se ovaj put spaja sa glavnom cestom B nije označena. Ona se, međutim, susreće sa cestom, gotovo pod uglom navedenim na ploči.

Cesta D-Cut koja spaja trajektnu cestu (B) i sporednu cestu, (C) koja se proteže otprilike tristo pedeset metara od prednje strane baterije, (F)-cesta je u očišćenoj klisuri.

E, E - Nacionalne baterije udaljene oko 300 metara od pobunjeničke baterije.

G-Lijevo krilo pobunjeničkih utvrđenja, dugačko 4.350 stopa, koje se sastoji od trupaca i šina, na grebenu planine, koje se proteže od baterije (F) do litica straga na Gauleyu.

K - Carnifex Ferry, milju i više od pobunjeničke baterije.

L - Most pobunjeničkih trestla preko Gauleyja, koji su uništili nakon prelaska.

M - Kukuruzno polje otvoreno okrenuto prema pobunjeničkoj bateriji, ne više od 350 metara od baterije. Dvanaesti Ohio i neki od desetih su bili tamo. Pukovnik LOWE je ubijen na tom polju.

N - Tačka na kojoj je Deseti pod pukovnikom LYTLE -om prvi primio pobunjeničku vatru, recimo 250 metara od pobunjeničke baterije.

O - Gdje je LYTLE ranjen.

P - Položaj je stekao pukovnik SMITH 's Trinaesti puk kada je noć zaključila borbu.

R - Pozicija devetog Ohaja, MCCOOK -a i HARTBUFF -a, kada ih je noć sustigla.

S - Duboka jaruga ispred pobunjenika, opkoljena mušketirom. Stranice granjene njihovom artiljerijom.

T-Pozicija dvadeset trećeg i dvadeset osmog Ohaja, pod HAYS i MOOR, kada se bitka završila, gledajući uzbrdo pobunjenike.

U - Duboka provalija, sa provalijama, koje ometaju bočna kretanja s desne strane neprijatelja.

V - Izviđači pobunjenici na zapovjednoj planini, na istočnoj strani rijeke Ganley, (dan nakon bitke), koji promatraju naše kretanje na trajektu.

OPIS ZADEVANJA.

General Benham otvara s prvom brigadom Ohio

Trupe -Galantna deseta i trinaesta -

Pukovnik Lytle Wounded - Naša zastava se održava

od strane Iraca -Pad pukovnika Lowea -

Holandska brigada- Noćni kom-

pels Prestanak borbe

Od našeg vlastitog dopisnika.

KAMP SCOTT, KOD CARNIFEX TRAJEKTA,

Gauley River, Nicholas Co., Va., 12. septembra 1861.

Sažeti prikaz bitke kod Carnifex Ferryja, 10. inst. povlačenje FLOYD -a i njegove vojske, zauzimanje njegove logorske opreme i velike količine vojnih skladišta, municije, mušketa, mačeva i ličnog prtljaga FLOYD -a i njegovih oficira, proslijeđeno je 11. jula ujutro ovaj kamp za Associated Press u zemlji. Pretpostavljajući da su vam vijesti stigle, bit će dosljedno donijeti povijest ekspedicije s mjesta odakle sam vam napisao posljednju komunikaciju. Incidenti marša bili su nam mnogo zanimljiviji nego što bi njihov nacrt mogao biti vašim čitateljima, pa ću stoga žuriti preko zemlje currante celamo, sve dok ne stignemo na bojno polje.

Kolona se namjerno kretala preko planine Kreitz 's, masivnog odlomka raspona, koji je podijeljen prekrasnim kanalom rijeke Little Birch. Put je bio vrlo dobar, uz nekoliko izuzetaka, ali uslijed mnogih kašnjenja, bez očigledne potrebe, bili smo zatočeni na planini do jakih udara, pa smo bili primorani da teturamo najgrubljim putem koji je još ometao marš. Bilo je mračno, a ruta je prolazila kroz uske prolaze i preko uzburkanog i krševitog kanala Velike breze koji je pratio ekscentrična odstupanja planina. Nakon mnogih nevolja, konačno smo posljednji put pregazili Veliku brezu, a uznemirene i umorne trupe naglo su se zaronile u prijateljske livade u stanovima Velike breze. Pretpostavljam da smo rijeku prelazili desetak puta u dva sata, često na mjestima koja su bila neugodno duboka za pješadiju. Bilo je namjera da se bivakira u podnožju planine, ali nismo pronašli kamp, ​​čak ni onu stranu brda na kojoj se vojnik mogao zavaliti u nadi da će ostati miran dok ne zaspi.

Na sreću, bilo nam je dopušteno da u nedjelju odmorimo svoje umorne kosti, dok su naše izviđačke grupe krstarile planinama i gomilama u potrazi za pobunjenicima koji su pobjegli iz doline kurve u kojoj smo se ulogorili, dok se naša avangarda izvlačila iz provalija na istočnoj strani rijeke. To su bile prve indicije koje smo imali o prisutnosti budnog neprijatelja, ali tokom dana naši izviđači su vidjeli mnoge dokaze o njima. [. ] uveče je jedan od njihovih kapetana konjanika divljih mačaka ubijen pokušavajući sa svojom grupom da pokupi neke naše ljude. Sada smo stigli do zemlje prepune sporednih puteva, slijepih puteva i planinskih prijevoja. Bio je također zaražen hrvačima, a kako bi se zaustavili svi putevi pomoću kojih bi neprijatelj mogao pogoditi naše redove u pozadini ili u središtu, general i njegov inžinjerijski zbor utvrdili su da je potrebno izvršiti minuciozno izviđanje.

U ponedjeljak ujutro zapečatili smo Powell Mountain - najviši vrh u Zapadnoj Virdžiniji, dokaz da se neprijatelj koji se udaljava nedaleko unaprijed stalno povećava. Na najgornjem grebenu zatekli smo logor koji je prethodne noći bio zauzet znatnim odredom. Snažnim napumpavanjem žena u jednoj seoskoj kući na cesti saznali smo da je zabava dio vojske FLOYD -a i da nas je lider pobunjenika čekao sa moćnom snagom, ukopan u blizini Cross Lanesa - tačka osam miljama ispod Summervillea, na rijeci Gauley.

Generala je očigledno zbunio zbunjujući izvještaj koji poštuje topografiju zemlje i položaj neprijatelja. Ispitane su sve žene ili dijete dovoljno inteligentni da odgovore na jednostavno pitanje. Činilo se da je većina planinskih ljudi pobjegla pri približavanju neprijateljske vojske, bilo da bi pobjegli od impresije ili da bi se pridružili pobunjeničkim vojskama, a bilo je izuzetno teško pronaći vodiča koji je znao nešto o zemlji milju od autoput. Nekoliko neznalica koje su povremeno pokupili naši izviđači, izgledalo je krajnje nemoćno da zadovolje opće upite, i obično su odbačeni s dobronamjernim nalozima da se suzdrže od toga da neprijatelju prenose naše kretanje. Brbljava starica u kolibi na planini uvjeravala nas je da se FLOYD hvalio njegovom sposobnošću da odbije svaku silu koju smo spremni uvesti protiv njega, a stara dama je začinila svoje tračeve impresionirajući nas činjenicom da su pobunjenici bili "Svemoćno jako, ružno mjesto." Starica je govorila na osnovu iskaza iz druge ruke, ali bila je u pravu Naši zaključci, iz izvještaja da je FLOYD imao pet ili šest hiljada ljudi i snažno ukorijenjene baterije, bili su opravdani.

Naša avangarda se u sumrak razbila o dna Muddlethyja i uplašila odred pobunjenika nekoliko stotina ljudi iz bivaka nedaleko ispred. Naši su momci krenuli u potjeru, ali zlikovci su tako brzo utrčali u šumu da se naše dalekometne puške nisu uspjele nanijeti na njih. Naša kolona je bivakirala na lijepim livadama Muddlethyja, a trupe su zaspale, očekujući da će krenuti u bitku prije drugog zalaska sunca. Nisu bili razočarani.

Naša avangarda ponovo je bila u pokretu sljedećeg jutra u 4 o ' sati, a u 6 smo brzo krenuli prema Summersvllleu - udaljenom osam milja. Dok su se naši izviđači uzdizali od male rupe do vrha humka, koji gleda dolje u selo, otkrivena je grupa pobunjenih pobunjenika koja je letela niz cestu. Nekoliko divljih snimaka poslano je nakon njih bez učinka, osim za povećanje njihove brzine. Sada smo bili obaviješteni da se MCCOSLIN-ov Trideset šesti puk Virdžinija povukao prema pobunjeničkom logoru na rijeci Gauley jedva šest sati prije. Ubrzo nakon što se naša kolona zaustavila, zabava STEWART -ove Hoosier konjice zarobila je niz pobunjeničkih zmajeva, nakon uzbudljive potjere niz Charleston cestu.

Sada smo napredovali s izuzetnim oprezom. Nismo imali jasne informacije o položaju pobunjenika. i mogli su pasti u ambaskadu ili maskiranu bateriju. BENHAM -ovi okršači obilazili su cestu s obje strane, brišući svaku stopu zemlje, a izviđači su poslani naprijed da pređu džunglu. Pet ili šest milja ispod Summervillea, čikaški draguni iz SCHAUMBERG-a i mali odred pješadije poslati su kroz šumu s lijeve strane da unište trajekt u rijeci Gauley, i izvršavali su naređenje, kada su dočekani tušem loptica sa litica na suprotnoj obali. Pukovnik MCCOOK doveo je mali odred iz Devetog Ohaja i izlivao volej u stijene, što je rastjeralo grmlje. Naši draguni su imali jednog čovjeka ranjenog u nogu, a jedan pobunjenik je srušen.

Odatle nije prošao nijedan put uzde, jaruga ili susjedna litica bez unaprijed temeljitog pregleda. Oko 1 o ' sati kolona se zaustavila na račvanju ceste, jedan krak je vodio do Cross Lanesa i Gauley Bridgea, drugi prema Lewisburghu preko trajekta Carnifex. Sat vremena pre nego što se ovde zaustavio, vrhovni komandant nije znao za geografski položaj Floyda, ali inteligentan momak planinar koji je bio u pobunjeničkom logoru, prigodno se pojavio kako bi ga prosvetlio. Većina nas je radila pod pogrešnom pretpostavkom da je neprijatelj utvrđen ispod Cross Lanesa, a to su potvrdili neuki ili podmukli stanovnici, ali momak nas je oslobodio tjeskobne sramote. Od njega smo saznali da se Floyd nalazio na liticama iznad Carrifex Ferryja i da se kilometar dalje uz cestu koja mu se približava nalazila još jedna račva koja je vodila među brdima do Cross Lanesa. On je nevino sugerirao njenu važnost s vojnog gledišta, a smatralo se važnim temeljito izviđanje prostorija. Teške kolone odmah su raspoređene u liniji borbe na brdima u pozadini, a snažna tijela okršaja obavijala su grebene ispred, kada je generalu BENHAM-u naređeno da krene dalje niz cestu. Tako je zauzeto skoro dva sata, kada je BENHAM poslao vijest da je renesansa izvršena do željene tačke, a trag je bio jasan. General ROSECRANS je odmah otišao na front da se raspita o oštroj vatri u pravcu trajekta. Ispostavilo se da su naši okršači uvezli pobunjeničke pikete i u svojoj željnoj potjeri uznemirili znatno tijelo neprijatelja pod njim. Pukovniče REYNOLDS, koji su se ulogorili na brdu nedaleko od kilometra i po od račvanja ceste na kojoj smo se toliko dugo zaustavljali. Vijest je prenesena vojnicima, koji su je primili nadahnjujućim povicima. Svima je sada bilo potpuno očito da ćemo se sukobiti s neprijateljem. Muškarci su se muški spremili za to i pokazali sjajan duh. Irski puk, pod komandom pukovnika LYTLEA, koji ima pravo na kolonu, već je ugušio neprijatelja, pritisnuo ga je vatrenim žarom, sa galantnim SMITH -om i njegovim Trinaestim Ohioom za petama. Ostatak BENHAM-ove brigade, dvanaesti Ohio, pod pukovnikom LOWE-om, zaustavljen je u podnožju brda, radi čuvanja poprečnog puta, dok su MCCOOK i SCAMMON pomjerali svoje kolone prema naprijed drugom rutom, preko grebeni.

General BENHAM je sada zatražio dozvolu da pritisne neprijatelja sa svojom brigadom, a general ROSECRANS je dao svoj pristanak za demonstracije radi izviđanja. BENHAM je pljesnuo mamuzama svom konju, mašući glavom s očiglednim zadovoljstvom i obećavajući zadovoljavajuću istragu o aranžmanima gospodina FLOYD -a, koji su tako marljivo skrivani. Prevladalo je snažno uzbuđenje. Svaki trenutak izgledao je kao sat. Oni su unapred bili ozbiljni i željni. Oni koji su se zaustavljali u pozadini bili su nestrpljivi u pogledu pritvaranja, a tu i tamo pucanj ili dva, koji su se čuli unaprijed, pojačali su njihovu uznemirenost.

Bilo je tačno 3:45 o ' popodne kada je vrhovni komandant odjahao na vrh susednog brda da izvrši osmatranje. Njegovo osoblje bilo je grupirano o njemu čekajući naredbe, a naša je artiljerija radila uz brdo, kada je našu pažnju privukla brza, oštra paljba u šumama, samo ispred nas. Gotovo istovremeno, i prije nego što smo mogli zamijeniti primjedbe, naše su duše bile oduševljene strašnim i produženim hukom mušketiranja. U našim se mislima pojavila sumnja da je galantna Prva brigada pala u zasjedu ili maskiranu bateriju.

Jezik nije adekvatan da prikaže našu intenzivnu anksioznost. Općenito, iako čvrsto, pokazalo je strašne emocije vlastite hrabre duše. Svi smo bili u agoniji neizvjesnosti. Ali jedva da je trenutak prošao kada smo, uz uzdah zahvalnog olakšanja, začuli brze napade naših galantnih mladića. Po pucanju njihovih pušaka znali smo da ih nije obuzela ni zaprepastila užasna vatra koja je grmela u turobnoj klisuri u kojoj su se borili. A sada je duboka detonacija narasla u razmjere užasne veličine topovskim otvaranjem. Njihov gromoglasni glas valjao se u veličanstvenoj jačini među vrletima Gauleyja sve dok njihova zbunjena odjeka nije utihnula u borbenim odjecima među planinama. Nismo mogli vidjeti ništa iz bitke, čak ni dim, ali smo po paklenoj galami znali da se naši bataljoni vrve oko neprijatelja. Samo su Deseta i osam četa Trinaestog puka još bile napredovale. LOWE 's Dvanaesti Ohio je naredio general ROSECRANS, a sada je krenuo uz cestu dvostruko brzo, njegov hrabri pukovnik na čelu, i dok su momci dizali greben brda pozdravili su generala, koji je čekajući da upute svog zapovjednika, uz sjajnu salvu klica. Dvanaesti je zaronio u džunglu s lijeve strane, ađutant-gen. HARTSUFF vodi LOWE -a prema svom položaju. Dok su odvažni momci jurnuli u šumu, očajnički su bacili naprtnjače i ćebad u polje i skočili naprijed da povrate svoja mjesta. HARTSUFF se sada vratio i po naređenju generala poslao naprijed haubice MCMULLEN 's i dva terenska komada SNYDER 's, koji su uz gromki reket zaronili na cestu. Vagoni municije teško su se vukli, timovi bijesno udarali konje najvećom brzinom. Štabni oficiri očajničkom su brzinom jurili tamo -amo, vodeći po kolonama, prema hitnim slučajevima, ili izvršavajući naređenja komandantima pukova ili brigada. Slavni ansambl bio je sjajan spektakl uzbuđenja i željne žurbe da uletite u bitku. Nije to pogledao čovjek čije srce nije bilo uvjereno u pobjedu. Sumnjam da je među muškarcima postojala podozrenje da bi mogli biti odbijeni, a nisu.

Ali sve je ostalo obavijeno misterijom. Sa terena nisu stigle nikakve vijesti. General ROSECRANS, nakon što je napravio sve potrebne mjere za zaštitu stražnjice, napredovao je prema naprijed. Gurajući se trajektnom cestom, koja je bila gusto zasjenjena masom šikare i gustim šumama, još uvijek nismo vidjeli bitku osim strašne galame, koja je izgledala gotovo u granicama šljunka, i snažnih metaka koji su presijecali perike iznad, bio je dokaz da je neprijatelj je bio pri ruci. Direktan odsjaj svjetla sa čistine ispred, s dugim mlazom vatre koji je plamtio duž radova neprijatelja, pokazao je gdje se nalaze. General je zauzeo položaj u blizini baterije, ali od tog vremena pa sve do posljednje kolone koja je u gustom mraku opipavala šumu, bio je usred borbe, usmjeravajući opća kretanja divizije. BENHAM je također bio na početku bitke, posmatrajući svoju brigadu s bezobzirnim otkrivanjem njegove ličnosti, ohrabrujući i ohrabrujući ljude svojom neustrašivošću.

U međuvremenu se brigada Nijemaca MCCOOK -a formirala u bitci na grebenu Rebel Hill -a, a mala brigada SCAMMON -a marširala je kako bi se formirala iza njega kako bi zaštitila našu ljevicu. Vratio sam se sa fronta sa naređenjem SCAMMON-u da pošalje odred da isproba neprijateljeve desne strane, a major R.B. HAYES, iz Dvadeset trećeg Ohaja, projurio je kroz šume sa četiri čete.

Ranjenici su sada brzo dovoženi, ubijajući pokolj. Bilo je možda oko šest sati kad je pukovnik LOWE najavljen među ubijenima. Pucnjava se nastavila pojačanim nasiljem s naše strane, ali je izgledalo da je neprijatelj popustio. No, galama je i dalje bila sjajna, pokazujući da nas pobunjenici namjeravaju natjerati da platimo pobjedu. Sunce je brzo zalazilo kada je stiglo naređenje da se prosledi holandska brigada. Veliko mi je zadovoljstvo bilo što sam bio prisutan i svjedočio veličanstvenom prijemu reda. Pukovnik R.L. MCCOOK, vršilac dužnosti brigadira, u građanskoj haljini, stajao je u uzengijama i istrgnuo klonuli šešir sa glave. & quotNaprijed, moj siledžijo Holanđane! Preći ćemo njihove d ---- d ukope, ako svaki čovjek umre s druge strane. & Quot; Obično flegmatični Teutonci, zapaljeni strasnim uzbuđenjem, eksplodirali su sa sjajnim klicanjem. Stari, sijedobradi momci podivljaju šešire uz pomahnitalo nasilje, a galantna brigada je dvostruko brzo krenula naprijed, tresući cestu svojim teškim korakom. Scena je bila veličanstveno uzbudljiva. Nije to vidio čovjek čija duša nije bila upaljena, a dok je galantni MCCOOK bijesno jurio gore -dolje po njegovim redovima, vičući svojim čvrstim Nizozemcima, nitko nije sumnjao da će, ako ikada dobiju naredbu da napadnu bateriju, preći parapet sa neodoljivom snagom.

Dok je kolona bila raspoređena na cestu, kapetan HARTSUFF se dobrovoljno javio da povede kolonu na mjesto, kada se tri hiljade Nizozemaca ponovo oglasilo promuklim, a MCCOOK je pojurio naprijed da izvidi svoju poziciju. * * Brigadi nije bilo dozvoljeno juriš, ali Deveti Ohio, puk MCCOOK-a i pukovnik MOORE & Dvadeset osmi imali su priliku pokazati svoju postojanost pod žučnom vatrom. Treći njemački puk bio je zatočen u pozadini i uopće nije krenuo u akciju, ali je njegov pukovnik PORSCHNER ušao u oluju metaka kako bi vidio kako bije bitka.

Kad se tama približila vatra je popustila. Činilo se da su se pobunjenici umorili ili da su ostali bez municije, a naši generali su nastojali dovesti svoje ljude u položaj za opći napad. Ali duboka tama je nastupila prije nego što su aranžmani završeni, pa je postalo apsolutno neophodno povući naše trupe. Bilo je, međutim, 9 o ' sati noću, prije nego što smo se povukli u bivak, pod samim baterijama pobunjenika, namjeravajući ih olujom prenijeti prije izlaska sunca sljedećeg jutra. Ali neprijatelj nas nije čekao, a naš trijumf bio je samo pola pobjede.

Sada ćemo se detaljnije vratiti na detalje o angažmanu. Kad je general BENHAM otišao na front, namjeravalo se oružano izviđanje položaja pobunjenika, a ne opća akcija. Nismo znali ništa o položaju - čak ni gdje se nalazio, niti o topografskim obilježjima masivno razbijenih planina oko njega. Osim toga, muškarci su marširali sedamnaest milja i po, a mnogi od njih bili su uznemiravani i umorni od izviđanja i okršaja po cijeli dan po brdima. Čitava kolona je, naime, bila uzburkana od 3 sata ujutro i očigledno je bila nesposobna za borbu. Kapetan HARTSUFF žestoko se usprotivio opštem angažmanu i ozbiljno je preporučio vojsci da ode u logor i osvježi se hranom i snom - sa razumijevanjem da je hitno izviđanje imperativno potrebno.

General BENHAM je nastavio s ovim razumijevanjem, kada su neprijateljske#27 u unutrašnjosti piketa ubacili irski okršaji. Nekoliko trenutaka nakon toga, pobunjenici su čuli njegove ljude u provaliji pod puškama i pustili ih da ispuštaju njihov prvi pakleni hitac duž cijele linije s desne strane. Vjeruje se da pobunjenici uopće nisu vidjeli naše ljude, već su pucali u pothvat u džunglu, na poligon na kojem su očito vježbali. Ali nijedan naš čovjek nije povrijeđen, a padavine FLOYD -a otkrile su njegove linije. General BENHAM, pukovnik LYTLE i pukovnik SMITH, međutim, pažljivo su tražili iznenađenja, stari general je rekao da ga nikada neće uhvatiti maskirana baterija. The way was now described by rebel bullets, and the Tenth was deployed up the bill to the right, and the Thirteenth down the hill into the ravine to the left. -- LYTLE and SMITH each at the head of their regiments. Our batteries were still behind and LOWE's Twelfth Ohio was some distance in the rear coming up slowly, so that the Tenth and Thirteenth had to support the enemy's fire a long time without assistance. But they did it gallantly, and continued to advance until they got to the edge of the abatis in front of the enemy, where they stood near the verge of the forest. In consequence of the rugged and impracticable nature of the ground, the line of the Tenth was broken, and the right wing was separated from the centre. Col. LYTLE could not see this on account of the jungle, and Gen. BENHAM was directing a movement on the extreme left, when LYTLE ordered the colors forward, and shouting "Follow, Tenth," he made a dash up the road, intending to charge the battery, and succeeded in getting within little more than a hundred yards of the rebel parapet before he was discovered. A terrific fire opened upon him, and his four gallant companies, who followed him with frantic cheers, suffered severely. A ball went through his left log, and wounded his horse, which became unmanageable, and threw him. The horse dashed over the rebel intrenchments, and was killed, and the gallant LYTLE himself was assisted into a house not a hundred feet off, and heard the crash of cannon balls through it and over it until the battle ended. Color-Sergeant FITZGIBBONS, who was behind the Colonel when he fell, had his right hand shattered, but, gathering the Stars and Stripes in his left, he waved them again enthusiastically, and was torn to pieces by a round shot. Sergeant OɼONNOR snatched the falling colors, and again held them aloft, when he was also struck by a ball in his left hand, but he dropped behind a log, and kept the colors flying until exhaustion compelled him to drop them. His Captain, STEPHEN MCGROARTY, as gallant a fellow as ever wore sword, snatched them up again, and while rolling them up, ordered his men to retire to cover, and in bringing up the rear a ball struck him in the right breast, and went through him without disabling him, until after he got out of the field with his flag. Every man of his company stuck to him with unswerving fidelity.

The Irish lads continue to stick to the front with splendid determination, but they were sadly cut up. Father O'HIGGINS, their Chaplain, was with them constantly, and Lieut.-Col. KORFF, Major BURKE, Capt. R. M. MOORE and Capt. ANNIS displayed conspicuous gallantry. Meantime, Col. SMITH worked off to the extreme right of the rebels under a furious fusilade of rifles and musketry, and was laboriously engaged in scaling a precipice which protected the rebel position in that direction. It was twilight before he got into position for an assault, but his men lay on their bellies in the thicket playing away at the enemy not a hundred yards from them. The order for an assault did not come, and the brave Thirteenth had wasted its energies and showed their pluck for nothing. The conduct of Col. SMITH and his regiment was a theme of admiration. The Colonel himself was brave to a fault, but cool and skillful as a veteran.

The Twelfth Ohio had found their route impracticable, and their brave Colonel carried them over a rugged route squarely into the front of the battle, and gave them an opportunity to do their share of duty. Col. LOWE was encouraging and directing them in front, when he was struck by a shot fairly in the centre of his forehead, and he fell dead without a groan. A moment afterwards a charge of grape mangled both his legs.

I was not suprised that poor LOWE was killed. I anticipated his misfortune. He was unjustly and malignantly accused of cowardice at Scarey, and he had said the sacrifice of his life was necessary to redeem his reputation. On his way to the field of Carnifex Ferry he requested the chaplain of his regiment to take care of his property if his presentiments should be realized. He died where a soldier loves to die -- in the thickest of the fight. Col. LOWE was an old citizen of Xenla, Ohio, where he was universally respected. He was not an educated military man, but he had the courage of a soldier. His remains have been forwarded to his family.

SNYDER's two rifled 6-pounders and MCMULLEN's batteries were planted in the road about two hundred yards in front of the rebel main battery, and were served rapidly and with considerable effect. Subsequently part of each was removed to the right. Capt. MCMULLEN was finally struck down, but not seriously hurt. The rebel artillery was not regarded very formidable. The majority of their balls and shells went whistling and tearing through the tree-tops, making an infernal racket, and now and then around shell would stop, in mid career, in the trunk of a tree and bury itself, with a wicked crash. The cannon practice generally was not distinguished for scientific accuracy. The rebels finally got short of legitimate ammunition and played spelter canister upon us. Many of our shells did not explode at all, but occasionally one would scatter the rebels in every direction. But our lads rarely caught a glimpse of the Virginians. They kept close under cover, and made no unnecessary exposures. Even their gunners were exceedingly careful to keep out of the way, and not once did they attempt to display daring or to move from their position towards us.

At dusk MCCOOK's Brigade was ordered into position. The Ninth was carried around to the left of the rebel battery by Capt. HARTSUFF, to make a rush upon it under a flanking battery, which had been discovered in the woods, on their extreme left, but which had not been served during the engagement. The bold fellows, under their Colonel, pushed forward under a galling storm of musketry, and were about to dash headlong at the enemy under cover of darkness, when they were ordered back, after suffering a loss of one killed and ten wounded. The four companies under Major HAYES, after infinite difficulty, scaling precipices and forcing their way through dense thickets of laurel and blackberry bushes, had been halted in a ravine in front of the centre of the rebels' right wing, and they were afterwards supported by the Twenty-eighth, under Col. MOOR. The former met with no casualties, though under fire. The latter pushed across the ravine, and extended the line up a precipitous hill, until the whole of the main front of the enemy was enveloped by our lines. Ho lost two killed and thirty-one wounded.

It was now pitchy dark. It was impossible to distinguish an object a yard from your eyes, and it was so obviously unwise to storm the works in such dense obscurity that the General was compelled to withdraw the troops. They retired slowly and mad at their disappointment, and bivouacked wearied and supperless within musket range of the rebel front. It was 9 oɼlock at night when they got out of the forest where they had labored and fought unflinchingly five hours.

Our loss could not then be ascertained and from the terrific nature of the firing, we supposed it very heavy. We were not a little astonished, and I need not say gratefully so, to learn from Surqeons' and Company reports that only fourteen were killed and 104 wounded. Two of the latter have since died. Most of the wounds of those in hospital are merely flesh wounds, and with the exception of about a dozen, they will all be able to join their companies within a mouth.

You will remember that an armed reconnoissance was intended at first. How it become a battle will be explained by official reports from head-quarters. I do not understand it, and I must express my conviction that it was not wise to take the men into such a battle without a perfect reconnoissance, and especially when they were wearied with a march of seventeen and a-half miles, and exhausted by scouting and skirmishing and loss of sleep. I cannot, undertake to say who is responsible. I presume, however, that our men, manifesting so much ardor and steadiness, worked the action into a general battle and got in so deeply that to retire would have caused serious consequences. Many of our officers justify the battle on the theory that FLOYD intended to run away from us from the first, and that had we delayed until morning we would have been chagrined to find that we had evacuated.

But to proceed with the narrative. After our troops were withdrawn, they were posted to prevent any attempt of the enemy to surprise us, and to prevent the retreat of FLOYD if possible. But our total ignorance of the country and the intense darkness of the night made it impossible to secure all the avenues of retreat. Gen. ROSECRANS himself was up all night long, taking care of his position with jealous and anxious solicitude but notwithstanding his watchfulness, his wily and cowardly foe slipped from his grasp.

Our troops expected to storm the position and take it by sunrise, but before that time it was discovered vacant. FLOYD had slipped off after our troops were withdrawn. He began the evacuation as soon as he discovered that we did not intend to storm him, and by 3 oɼlock the next morning he put the deep and turbulent Gauley, and some miles of rugged road, between himself and our disgusted Army. The wily General sunk the flats and destroyed the trestle bridge by which he had secured his retreat, and we were left on this side, profanely cursing our luck.

Another victory, but not a triumph, had been won by our arms for surely it was a victory for our Army to drive six regiments of rebels, with more powerful batteries than we had in the fight, from a most formidable natural position, strengthened by pallisades and intrenchments. We know FLOYD had six regiments, besides two companies of artillery and considerable cavalry. Ali. only six of his guns were served -- the remainder being reserved in position on his left to protect him against a flank movement. I don't presume that the rebels believe it, but I know that we had not exceeding 4,000 men, all told, in action.

Our troops immediately took possession of FLOYD's camp, in which he had left his own personal baggage, that of his officers and their parade stores, the baggage and blankets of private soldiers, large numbers of muskets, squirrel guns, powder, lead, cartridges, forage, large quantities of commissary stores and some horses and wagons. He took nothing with him, in fact, excepting his guns, part of his tents and rations sufficient to carry him out of our way. It is ascertained that he threw at least a portion of his cannon into the Gauley, and a detachment of troops are now fishing for it. It was apparent that he met with infinite difficulty in crossing the river, and he lost some of his men by drowning. We have ascertained that the trestle bridge which he crossed was only completed the morning before battle. It seems fair to infer, therefore, that he expected a drubbing. * * *

The plunder of his camp, which is various, will be divided among the troops. Almost every, officer in camp has been supplied with a rebel trunk. Col. SMITH has FLOYD's trunk, his hat and a pretty little haversack inscribed with the name of the famous J.B., &c.

We do not know how much the enemy suffered. It is presumed that they lost considerably. One of their runaway negroes says they had fifty killed and many wounded. One of our recaptured friends of TYLER's Regiment says they carried wagon loads of dead and wounded across Gauley. A regard for truth prompts me to say that we found no dead within their lines, which goes to display their cowardice more conspicuously.

The conduct of our gallant Buckeye troops -- for they were exclusively from Ohio -- is a theme of admiration. With the exception of a few who straggled from their commands after firing a few rounds, the lads displayed not only the most eager courage, but "staying" qualities which would have delighted veterans. The Generals were delighted with them. The Irish, the Germans and the native born emulated each other in the combat. The gallant Irish of the Tenth, and their daring leader, the chivalrous LYTLE, were probably the most conspicuous in the field because they had the front by right of seniority. But they nobly established their claim to the post of honor. Many instances of personal pluck are related of them, but I have not time to relate them now. The regiment lost eight killed and about forty wounded -- but few of them severely. I cannot understand why they lost no more under the furious fire which they met from the comencement to the close of the fight.

The Thirteenth was equally distinguished for pluck, dashing spirit, and, sturdy endurance. Their Colonel, W.S. SMITH, displayed qualities which stamp him an able soldier. No man was braver. Lieut.-Col. MASON had his fore-finger shot off, but enveloped it in a handkerchief and remained on the field. Major HAWKINS also proved himself a brave and efficient soldier. I have already described the operations of the noble Dutch Brigade, and of the Artillery. The officers of each regiment exhibited coolness and steadfastness under the most trying circumstances. Col. MCCOOK and Lieut.-Col. SANDERSHOFF, of the Ninth Col. MOOR and Lieut-Col. BECKER, of the Twenty-eighth Col. PORSCHNER, of the Forty-seventh Major R.B. HAYES, bf the Twenty-third Lieut.-Col. KORFF and Major BURKE, of the Tenth, and many company officers, distinguished themselves by their bravery and conduct. Nearly all the troops actually engaged are residents of Cincinnati. The blood of the Queen City may be relied upon. The "Bloody Tenth," known as the Irish regiment, is composed of six companies of Irishmen, two of Germans, and two of Americans. The personal courage of Gen. ROSECRANS and Gen. BENHAM was conspicuous throughout. Indeed, I think they unwisely exposed themselves. The troops knew they were game as eagles, and there was no necessity for risking their lives in the very front of battle, two hundred yards from a battery which constantly vomited iron upon them.

That you may more thoroughly comprehend the formidable character of the rebel position, I transmit a rough outline, kindly sketched for me by Gen. BENHAM. Lest you cannot publish a diagram, I will describe it as briefly as possible.

The defences consist of a parapet battery, 350 feet in the front and centre, flanked by breastworks of logs laid in direct line with the front, and curving back until they terminated on the cliffs of Gauley. The exterior slopes are screened by slanting rails. The defences are on the westward crest of a horse-shoe mountain, which mounts up precipitously on the west side of Gauley River, in front of Carnifex Ferry. They embrace almost a square mile of territory. The rear is protected by gigantic cliffs, shooting up in perpendicular line 350 feet above the river, and where there are no cliffs the surface of the mountain, except on two narrow lines which lead to the ferry, are so steep and rugged that an armed man could not scale them if opposed with a broom-stick. The mountain curves off on either flank to similar cliffs, and the defences were carried to them. On the left, the position is comparatively accessible, and double lines of breastworks were constructed, Col. WHARTON occupying the extreme left, with a regiment of infantry and a battery. The lines on the right flank were carried down until they pitch off the rocks several hundred fact down. A trench, of course, protected the battery epaulment. Gauley River, a wild, roaring, beautiful torrent, also covers the rear perfectly. The rapids arc dangerous above and below, but at the ferry the stream is wide and very deep. The interior of the works where the rebels are encamped are concave, excepting on the wings -- the depression in the centre of the mountain forming a perfect, cover against missiles, excepting shells. In front the mountain pitched off into a deep jungled ravine. On the right and left, however, there were ridges outside of the lines which were cleared and protected by abattis. The dense thickets and heavy forests in front so completely masked the position that it could not be seen at all until we run directly into its embrace.

We approached from the west. The ferry road ran down into the ravine through the jungle, and traversed the side of a hill, debouching into a small cross ravine, in line with the parapet, 200 yards off a blind by-road, describing an irregular parabola, flew off-eccentrically from it, on the ridge from which we arrived down the road to the ferry, and joined it again in front, in full range of the rebel guns. About that point we first drew the rebel fire, where it was impossible for one to sec the other. There is a corn-field just beyond, in the vicinity of which most of our casualties happened. Our entire approach was covered by the enemy's artillery, and accessible to their musket balls, though no aim could be taken, of course, through the dense foliage. But the rascals had practiced at the bushes at the proper range, and by much firing in this manner they cut down many of our men before we could see anything of them or even their works. It was an infernal position to assail without a perfect reconnoissance. Had we understood it beforehand, Mr. FLOYD's Army would have been non est.

I forgot to mention that we recaptured 25 wounded members of Col. TYLER's Seventh Ohio Regiment at Cross Lanes, and took 12 prisoners, who were straggling about the mountain trying to cross the river.

The General desired to follow FLOYD, but it was impossible to cross the river in time to do any good besides our men were too much exhausted. Since then the plunder has been collected and divided among the troops. Communication was opened immediately with Gauley Bridge, and we now have two lines of transportation open to the Ohio.

I do not know what will be done next, but it is reported that LEE attacked Gen. REYNOLDS at Cheat Mountain to-day.

We are encamped at the Cross Roads, two miles from the battle-field. WESTERN.


Sadržaj

Political events Edit

On April 17, 1861, the Virginia state convention in Richmond declared secession. Nearly all delegates from counties west of the Allegheny Mountains voted against secession, and most people and officials in that area refused any directions from the secessionist state government.

On May 15, western Virginia Unionists convened the first session of the Wheeling Convention. Many of the delegates were informally or self-appointed, so the Convention only denounced secession and called for a formal election of delegates. The elected delegates met in the second session on 11 June. On 20 June the Convention declared that by acceding to secession, the officials of the state government in Richmond had forfeited their offices, which were now vacant. The Convention then elected replacements for these state offices, creating the Restored Government of Virginia. [2]

The "Restored" government was generally supported in areas where secession was opposed. Union troops also held the three northernmost counties in the Shenandoah Valley, and despite the pro-secession views of most residents, these counties were also subjected to the "Restored" government.

At the Wheeling Convention, some delegates proposed the immediate establishment of a separate state. However, other delegates pointed out that the creation of a new state would require the consent of Virginia, under Article IV of the Constitution. Thus it was necessary to establish the Restored Government of Virginia to give that consent, which was granted 20 August 1861.

A referendum in October 1861 approved statehood a constitutional convention met, and its work was approved by referendum in April 1862. Congress approved statehood that December, with the condition that slavery must gradually be abolished in the new state. This condition required a new constitutional convention and referendum, which was approved.

On 20 June 1863, the newly proclaimed state of West Virginia was admitted to the Union, including all the western counties and the lower (northern) Shenandoah "panhandle".

All the northern states had free public school systems before the war, but not the border states. West Virginia set up its system in 1863. Over bitter opposition it established an almost-equal education for black children, most of whom were ex-slaves. [3]

When Union troops occupied parts of eastern Virginia such as Alexandria and Norfolk, these areas came under the jurisdiction of the Restored Government. They were not included in West Virginia. With West Virginia statehood, the Restored government relocated to Alexandria.

The pro-Confederate state government in Richmond maintained its claim to the Commonwealth's antebellum borders and, under the auspices of the state's 1851 constitution, administered the regions of the Commonwealth still held under Confederate arms - at the time of West Virginia's statehood this included at least some measure of control in about thirteen counties claimed by the newly admitted state. Many localities (especially in the southeastern part of the state) sent representatives to both the Wheeling and Richmond state legislatures.

As was the case with all regions the Confederacy claimed but did not control, the Confederate States Congress seated Representatives from districts encompassing the whole of Virginia's antebellum borders until its dissolution. In House districts where the Confederates could not hold conventional elections, the Confederate Congress accepted the fragmentary Congressional results from army and refugee camps as representative of the majority of residents. While Confederate Congressional elections were ostensibly nonpartisan, especially in Virginia districts under Union occupation the administration of President Jefferson Davis manipulated the electoral process to ensure the election of pro-administration representatives, in large part to counteract the increasing tendency of House districts still under Confederate control to elect anti-administration candidates.

While the level of effective Confederate control over West Virginia would continue to diminish as the war progressed, authorities in Richmond were able to maintain at least a tenuous control over West Virginia's southeastern border regions until the end of the war.

Slavery Edit

During the Civil War, a Unionist government in Wheeling, Virginia, presented a statehood bill to Congress in order to create a new state from 48 counties in western Virginia. The new state would eventually incorporate 50 counties. The issue of slavery in the new state delayed approval of the bill. In the Senate Charles Sumner objected to the admission of a new slave state, while Benjamin Wade defended statehood as long as a gradual emancipation clause would be included in the new state constitution. [4] Two senators represented the Unionist Virginia government, John S. Carlile and Waitman T. Willey. Senator Carlile objected that Congress had no right to impose emancipation on West Virginia, while Willey proposed a compromise amendment to the state constitution for gradual abolition. Sumner attempted to add his own amendment to the bill, which was defeated, and the statehood bill passed both houses of Congress with the addition of what became known as the Willey Amendment. President Lincoln signed the bill on December 31, 1862. Voters in western Virginia approved the Willey Amendment on March 26, 1863. [5]

President Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, which exempted from emancipation the border states (four slave states loyal to the Union) as well as some territories occupied by Union forces within Confederate states. Two additional counties were added to West Virginia in late 1863, Berkeley and Jefferson. The slaves in Berkeley were also under exemption but not those in Jefferson County. As of the census of 1860, the 49 exempted counties held some 6000 slaves over 21 years of age who would not have been emancipated, about 40% of the total slave population. [6] The terms of the Willey Amendment only freed children, at birth or as they came of age, and prohibited the importation of slaves. [7]

West Virginia became the 35th state on June 20, 1863, and the last slave state admitted to the Union. [8] [9] [10] Eighteen months later, the West Virginia legislature completely abolished slavery, [11] and also ratified the 13th Amendment on February 3, 1865.

Military events Edit

In April 1861, Virginia troops under Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson occupied Harpers Ferry and part of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad leading into western Virginia. They seized many B&O locomotives and railcars on May 23.

In May and June 1861, Confederate forces advanced into western Virginia to impose control by the Richmond government and the Confederacy. They got no further than Philippi, due to bad roads. Then Union troops under McClellan drove them back in July.

There was additional campaigning further south, where Greenbrier County was pro-Confederate, enabling Confederate troops to enter Nicholas County to the west. In September 1861, Union troops drove the Confederates out of Nicholas County and defeated their counterattack at Cheat Mountain.

Thereafter all of the trans-Allegheny region was under firm Union control except for the southern and eastern counties. Greenbrier County was occupied in May 1862. Pro-Confederate guerrillas burned and plundered in some sections, and were not entirely suppressed until after the war was ended.

There were two minor Confederate expeditions against the northeastern corner of the west later on: Jackson's Romney Expedition in January 1862 and the Jones-Imboden Raid in May–June 1863.

Union strategy for the region was to protect the vital B&O Railroad and also attack eastward into the Shenandoah Valley and southwestern Virginia. This latter goal proved impossible, due to the poor roads across mountainous terrain.

The B&O passed across the lower (northern) end of the Shenandoah, east of the Alleghenies. This area was therefore occupied by Union troops for nearly all of the war, and was a scene of frequent combat.

Harpers Ferry was the site of a major U.S. Army arsenal, and was taken by Confederates in the opening days of the war, and again during the Maryland Campaign of 1862. During the Maryland Campaign it was a route of invasion and retreat for the Army of Northern Virginia the campaign concluded there with the Battle of Shepherdstown.

Many soldiers from West Virginia served on both sides in the war.

Those in Confederate service were in "Virginia" regiments.

Those in Union service were also in "Virginia" regiments until statehood, when several Unionist "Virginia" regiments were redesignated "West Virginia" regiments. Among these were the 7th West Virginia Infantry, famed for actions at Antietam and Gettysburg, and the 3rd West Virginia Cavalry, which also fought at Gettysburg.

On the Confederate side, Albert G. Jenkins, a former U.S. Representative, recruited a brigade of cavalry in western Virginia, which he led until his death in May 1864. Other western Virginians served under Brig. Gen. John Imboden and in the Stonewall Brigade under Brig. Gen. James A. Walker. [12]

On May 28, 1861 one of the first trials of the Civil War for sabotage took place in Parkersburg, Virginia. A group of men were found playing cards under a B&O railroad bridge and arrested by Federal authorities. The trial was conducted by Judge William Lowther Jackson (later, Gen. W.L. Jackson, C.S.A.). The men were acquitted, since no actual crime had taken place, but Parkersburg was split over the verdict, and Judge Jackson left to join Col. Porterfield at Philippi. [13]

With the defeat of Confederate forces at the Battle of Philippi and the Battle of Cheat Mountain only occasionally would they occupy parts of western Virginia. Local supporters of Richmond were left to their own devices. Many guerrilla units originated in the pre-war militia, and these were designated Virginia State Rangers and starting in June, 1862, these were incorporated into Virginia State Line regiments. By March, 1863, however, many were enlisted in the regular Confederate army. [14]

There were others though who operated without sanction of the Richmond government, some fighting on behalf of the Confederacy, while others were nothing more than bandits who preyed on Union and Confederate alike. Early in the war captured guerrillas were sent to Camp Chase or Johnson Island in Ohio, Fort Delaware in Delaware and also the Atheneum in Wheeling. Some were paroled after taking an oath, but many returned to their guerrilla activities. The Union authorities began to organize their own guerrilla bands, the most famous of which was the "Snake Hunters", headed by Capt. Baggs. They patrolled Wirt and Calhoun counties through the winter of 1861–62 and captured scores of Moccasin Rangers, which they sent as prisoners to Wheeling.

The fight against the rebel guerrillas took a new turn under Gen. John C. Fremont and Col. George Crook, who had spent his pre-war career as an "Indian fighter" in the Pacific Northwest. Col. Crook took command of the 36th Ohio Infantry, centered around Summersville, Nicholas County. He trained them in guerrilla tactics and adopted a "no prisoners" policy. [15]

On January 1, 1862, Crook led his men on an expedition north to Sutton, Braxton County, where he believed Confederate forces were located. None were found, but his troops encountered heavy guerrilla resistance and responded by burning houses and towns along the line of march. [16] But by August, 1862, Unionist efforts were severely hampered with the withdrawal of troops to eastern Virginia.

In this vacuum Gen. William W. Loring, C.S.A, recaptured the Kanawha valley, Gen. Albert Gallatin Jenkins, C.S.A., moved his forces through central West Virginia, capturing many supplies and prisoners. [17] Confederate recruitment increased, Gen. Loring opening recruitment offices as far north as Ripley.

In response to rebel raids, Gen. Robert H. Milroy issued a command demanding reparations to be paid in cash and proceeded to assess fines against Tucker county citizens, guilty or not, and threatened them with the gallows or house-burning. Jefferson Davis and Confederate authorities lodged formal complaints with Gen. Henry Wager Halleck in Washington, who censured Gen. Milroy. However, Milroy argued in defense of his policy and was allowed to proceed.

By early 1863 Union efforts in West Virginia were going badly. Unionists were losing confidence in the Wheeling government to protect them, and with the approaching dismemberment of Virginia into two states guerrilla activity increased in an effort to prevent organization of county governments. By 1864 some stability had been achieved in some central counties, but guerrilla activity was never effectively countered. [18] Union forces that were needed elsewhere were tied down in what many soldiers considered a backwater of the war. But Federal forces could not afford to ignore any rebel territory, particularly one so close to the Ohio River. [19]

As late as January, 1865, Gov. Arthur I. Boreman complained of large scale guerrilla activity as far north as Harrison and Marion counties. The Wheeling government was unable to control more than 20 to 25 counties in the new state. [20] In one last, brazen act of the guerrilla war, McNeill's Rangers of Hardy County kidnapped Generals George Crook and Benjamin F. Kelley from behind Union lines and delivered them as prisoners of war to Richmond. The Confederate surrender at Appomattox finally brought an end to guerrilla war in West Virginia. [21]

On May 30, 1861, Brig. Gen. George B. McClellan in Cincinnati wrote to President Lincoln: "I am confidently assured that very considerable numbers of volunteers can be raised in Western Virginia. ". [22] After nearly two months in the field in West Virginia he was less optimistic. He wrote to Gov. Francis Harrison Pierpont of the Restored Government of Virginia in Wheeling that he and his army were anxious to assist the new government, but that eventually they would be needed elsewhere, and that he urged that troops be raised "among the population". "Before I left Grafton I made requisitions for arms clothing etc for 10,000 Virginia troops – I fear that my estimate was much too large." [23] On August 3, 1861, the Wellsburg "Herald" editorialized "A pretty condition Northwestern Virginia is in to establish herself as a separate state. after all the drumming and all the gas about a separate state she has actually organized in the field four not entire regiments of soldiers and one of these hails almost entirely from the Panhandle." [24]

Similar difficulties were experienced by Confederate authorities at the beginning of the war. On May 14, 1861, Col. George A. Porterfield arrived in Grafton to secure volunteers, and reported slow enlistment. Col. Porterfield's difficulty ultimately, however, was lack of support by the Richmond government, which did not send enough guns, tents and other supplies. He eventually turned away hundreds of volunteers due to lack of equipment. [25] Gen. Henry A. Wise also complained of recruitment in the Kanawha valley, though he eventually assembled 2,500 infantry, 700 cavalry, three battalions of artillery for a total of 4,000 men which became known as "Wise's Legion". [26] One regiment from the Wise legion, the 3rd Infantry (later reorganized as the 60th Virginia Infantry) was sent to South Carolina in 1862, and it was from Maj. Thomas Broun of the 3rd Infantry that Gen. Robert E. Lee bought his famous horse Traveller.

In April 1862 the Confederate government instituted a military draft, [27] and nearly a year later the U.S. government did the same. The Confederate draft was not generally effective in West Virginia due to the breakdown of Virginia state government in the western counties and Union occupation of the northern counties, although conscription did occur in the southern counties. In the southern and eastern counties of West Virginia Confederate recruitment continued at least until the beginning of 1865. [28]

The Wheeling government asked for an exemption to the Federal draft, saying that they had exceeded their quota under previous calls. [29] An exemption was granted for 1864, but in 1865 a new demand was made for troops, which Gov. Boreman struggled to fill. In some counties, ex-Confederates suddenly found themselves enrolled in the U.S. Army. [30]

The loyalty of some Federal troops had been questioned early in the war. The rapid conquest of northern West Virginia had caught a number of Southern sympathizers behind Union lines. A series of letters to Gen. Samuels and Gov. Pierpoint in the Dept. of Archives and History in Charleston, most dated 1862, reveal the concern of Union officers. Col. Harris, 10th Company, March 27, 1862, to Gov. Pierpoint: "The election of officers in the Gilmer County Company was a farce. The men elected were rebels and bushwhackers. The election of these men was intended, no doubt, as a burlesque on the reorganization of the militia." [31]

Because the government in Richmond did not keep separate military records for what would become West Virginia, there has never been an official count of Confederate service in West Virginia. Early estimates were very low, in 1901 historians Fast & Maxwell placed the figure at about 7,000. [32] An exception to the low estimates is found in Why The Solid South?, whose authors believed the Confederate numbers exceeded Union numbers. [33] In subsequent histories the estimates rose, Otis K. Rice placed the number at 10,000-12,000. [34] Richard O. Curry in 1964 placed the figure at 15,000. [35] The first detailed study of Confederate soldiery estimates the number at 18,000, [36] which is close to the 18,642 figure stated by the Confederate Dept. of Western Virginia in 1864. [37] In 1989 a study by James Carter Linger estimated the number at nearly 22,000. [38]

The official number of Union soldiers from West Virginia is 31,884 as stated by the Provost Marshal General of the United States. [39] These numbers include, however, re-enlistment figures [40] as well as out-of-state soldiers who enlisted in West Virginia regiments. In 1905 Charles H. Ambler estimated the number of native Union soldiers to be about 20,000. [41]

Richard Current estimated native Union numbers at 29,000. [42] In his calculations, however, he only allowed for a deduction of 2,000 out-of-state soldiers in West Virginia regiments. Ohio contributed nearly 5,000, [43] with about 2,000 from Pennsylvania and other states.

In 1995 the George Tyler Moore Center for the Study of the Civil War began a soldier-by-soldier count of all regiments that would include West Virginians, both Union and Confederate. They concluded that West Virginia contributed approximately 20,000-22,000 men each to both the Union and Confederate governments. [44]

The Sisters of St. Joseph, who operated Wheeling Hospital in that city, were nurses during the war. They treated soldiers brought to the hospital and prisoners at the Athenaeum in downtown Wheeling. In 1864, the Union army took control of the hospital, and the sisters went on the federal payroll as matrons and nurses, beginning that summer. Several of them later received pensions in recognition of their service. [ potreban citat ]


In late August 1861, Confederate forces under Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd crossed the Gauley River and surprised the 7th Ohio Infantry under Col. Erastus Tyler at Kessler’s Cross Lanes. Outnumbered, Tyler’s inexperienced men routed, and Floyd camped near Carnifex Ferry. The Confederates began throwing up entrenchments on the Henry Patteson farm (located on the rim of the Gauley River Canyon near Summersville).

Concerned about Floyd’s drive to reclaim the Kanawha Valley, Union Brigadier General William S. Rosecrans led three brigades of infantry southward from Clarksburg to support Tyler’s regrouped regiment. Moving into position on the afternoon of September 10, Rosecrans advanced against Floyd’s campsite and attacked. The Confederate lines repulsed the attacks and the Federal casualties were significantly higher than the defenders. The strength of Rosecrans’ artillery proved to be problematic however, and Floyd decided to retreat that night across the ferry to the south side of the Gauley River. He subsequently moved eastward to Meadow Bluff near Lewisburg.

Floyd, seeking to deflect the blame, placed the responsibility for the defeat on his co-commander Brigadier General Henry A. Wise, furthering the dissension that marked the Confederate high command in western Virginia.


Battle of Carnifex Ferry (September 10, 1861)

As the possibility of civil war in the United States evolved during the early months of 1861, Virginia was a divided state. Led by residents of the eastern part of the state, Virginia voted to secede from the Union rather than accede to President Lincoln's call for each state to provide volunteer soldiers to put down the insurrection that began at Fort Sumter in April. Having little in common with their neighbors to the east, residents of the mountainous area of western Virginia initiated their own movement to secede from Virginia and to remain in the Union.

During the summer of 1861, Union and Confederate forces struggled for control of western Virginia. The area was of considerable importance because gaps in the Appalachian Mountains connected the East to the Midwest. The Virginia Militia acted quickly, disrupting traffic on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and taking control of turnpikes through the mountains. The Union government countered by sending 20,000 troops into the area under the command of Major General George B. McClellan. McClellan's forces pressed the Confederate troops in the area throughout the summer and fall, gradually driving the Rebels out of the region, paving the way for the creation of the new State of West Virginia in October 1861, although the federal government did not recognize West Virginia as a formal state until June 1863.

On June 3, Union troops commanded by Brigadier General Thomas A. Morris surprised a Confederate encampment at Philippi, Virginia and scored a Union victory in what generally is considered as the first significant land engagement in the eastern theater of the American Civil War.

On the night of July 10, Brigadier General William Rosecrans led 2,000 men on a march through the mountains, flanking a Rebel stronghold at Rich Mountain. His surprise attack on the Confederate rear the next day sent the Rebels into disarray. Rosecrans' triumph forced General Robert S. Garnett's 3,500 Rebel soldiers to abandoned their camp at Laurel Hill, tossing away supplies to lighten their loads and block the path of their pursuers as they fled south toward Beverly.

For the next two days, the Rebels and Yankees participated in a running battle. On the morning of July 13th, the Confederates made a stand at Corrick's Ford, a river crossing on the Shavers Fork of the Cheat River. During the Union victory at the Battle of Corrick's Ford Union soldiers mortally wounded Garnett as his troops fled in disarray.

On the Union side, President Lincoln summoned McClellan to the White House and offered him command of the Military Division of the Potomac. McClellan's departure left Brigadier General William S. Rosecrans in command of McClellan's forces operating in western Virginia. Brigadier General Joseph J. Reynolds was placed in direct command of the Federal force in Tygart Valley.

In late July, Union Brigadier General Jacob D. Cox led his "Kanawha Brigade" of Ohio Volunteer Regiments into western Virginia and forced Confederate forces out of the Kanawha River Valley. Confederate Brigadier General John B. Floyd countered by crossing the Gauley River with 2,000 soldiers on August 26, 1861 and routing Colonel Erastus Tyler's 7th Ohio Regiment encamped at Kessler's Cross Lanes. Floyd then withdrew to the river and established a defensive position, known as Camp Gauley, at Carnifex Ferry.

In early September, Rosecrans assembled a Union force of approximately 7,000 soldiers and marched on Floyd's soldiers at Camp Gauley. The leading elements of Rosecrans' force came into contact with Floyd's men near Carnifex Ferry after noon on September 10. Before Rosecrans was able to concentrate his troops for engagement, a battle erupted. Rosecrans spent the remainder of the day sending in his brigades one at a time as they arrived at the battlefield, allowing the outnumbered Confederates to repulse the piecemeal Union attacks. When the fighting ended that night, Floyd chose to withdraw rather than face Rosecrans' fully assembled force the next day. The following morning, Union troops occupied Camp Gauley without incident.

Rosecrans sustained a much higher casualty rate than Floyd (158 to 20) at the Battle of Carnifex Ferry, but the Rebel retreat further weakened the Confederacy's influence in western Virginia. By late October, Northern forces and Union sympathizers had firm control of the region. On October 24, 1861, residents of thirty-nine counties in western Virginia approved the formation of the new state of West Virginia.


Podijeli Carnifex Ferry Battlefield State Park

Located opposite the mouth of Meadow River, 12 miles south of Summersville, this 156-acre park encompasses the Carnifex Ferry Civil War battlefield. Here, on September 10, 1861, Union forces led by Gen. William S. Rosecrans defeated Gen. John B. Floyd’s Confederate troops, who were camped on a farm owned by Henry Patteson.

The state legislature, noting interest in the annual reunion of Carnifex Ferry battle veterans, passed a bill on March 14, 1931, to create the Carnifex Ferry Battlefield Park Commission. In 1935, the legislature appropriated funds to buy the Patteson farm. In 1950, during the administration of Governor Patteson, grandson of Henry Patteson, additional state funds were used to improve the park.

Historical attractions include the restored Patteson house and interpretative museum, and the annual Carnifex Ferry battle reenactment. Rekreacijska područja imaju pješačke staze, izletišta i igralište. Park je uvršten u Nacionalni registar historijskih mjesta 1974. godine.

Pročitajte nominaciju za Nacionalni registar.

Zadnji put revidirano 12. februara 2013


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