Informacije

Povijest Trippea II - Povijest


Trippe II

(Razarač torpednih čamaca br. 33: dp. 742 (n.), 1. 293'10 ", b. 26'1 ~" (wl.), Dr. 9'5 "(krma), s. 30.89 (tl .); kpl. 83; a. 5 3 ", 2,30-car. mg., 6 18" tt .; cl.Roe)

Drugi Trippe (razarač torpednih brodova br. 33) postavljen je 12. aprila 1910. godine u Bathu, Maine, od strane Bath Iron Works, pokrenuta 20. decembra 1910. pod sponzorstvom gospođe John S. Hyde, a puštena je u rad u mornaričkom dvorištu Bostona 23. marta 1911, poručnik Frank D. Berrien komanduje.

Nakon puštanja u rad, Trippe se pridružio razaračima torpednih čamaca i podmornicama dodijeljenim istočnoj obali kao jedinica Atlantske torpedne flote. Naredne tri godine vodila je rutinske operacije duž istočne obale. U lgll -u je završila suđenja i sudjelovala u vježbama uz rtove Newport, Boston i Virginia. Svoje prvo krstarenje južnim vodama uputila je 1912. Očistila je Newport 3. januara i 11 dana kasnije bacila sidro u zaljevu Guantanamo. Nakon tromjesečne obuke u zaljevu Guantanamo i Meksičkom zaljevu, razarač torpednih čamaca vratio se na sjever u travnju i ušao u bostonsku luku 21. dana. Nakon popravki, Trippe je nastavio obuku na sjeveroistočnoj obali. Dana 2. januara 1913. godine, ratni brod je još jednom krenuo na jug u trajanju od tri mjeseca taktičkih vježbi i artiljerijskih vježbi iz zaliva Guantanamo i u zaljevu Guacanayabo. Vratila se u Boston 14. aprila, a ostatak 1913. provela je u operacijama na obali između Bostona i Norfolka, Va.

Trippe je započela 1914. godine kao i prethodne dvije godine - krenula je prema jugu i vodila bojnu praksu na Karibima do kraja marta. Međutim, u aprilu ju je incident u Tampicu doveo do obala Meksika, kada su američki mornari i marinci izašli na obalu u Vera Cruz i zauzeli carinarnicu 21. dana. Trippe je stigla iz Tampica 22. i patrolirala područjem tjedan dana kako bi spriječila iskrcavanje oružja. 1. svibnja otplovila je na jug do Vere Cruz gdje je vodila više patrola i podržavala bojne brodove i krstarice koje djeluju u blizini. Pred kraj mjeseca Trippe je očistio meksičke vode i 31. ušao u bostonsku luku.

Po završetku opsežnog remonta, ratni brod je od sredine avgusta do kraja septembra vodio ispitivanja i vežbe u oblasti Bostona. Trippe je 30. septembra stigao u Newport na tjedan dana operacije prije nego što je krenuo na jug. Prebacila se na Hampton Roads sredinom oktobra i učestvovala u vježbama tamo i u zalivu Lynnhaven mjesec dana prije povratka u Boston.

Ratni brod je proveo decembar i prve tri sedmice 1916. u području Bostona, a 26. januara stigao je u zaljev Guantanamo kako bi nastavio svoj raspored zimskih vježbi na Karibima. Krajem marta Trippe je još jednom pokazala luk prema sjeveru i stigla u Boston 6. aprila. Nakon normalnog kruga manevara kod sjeveroistočne obale, razarač torpednih čamaca vratio se u Boston 23. oktobra. Nešto manje od dva mjeseca kasnije, 13. decembra 1915.-Trippe je postao jedinica novoorganizirane 2d rezervne flotile. Dana 5. januara 1916. godine, imenovana je za "razarača koji djeluje sa smanjenim komplementom", a 27. dana je postavljena u ordinaciju u Bostonskom mornaričkom dvorištu.

Ratna prijetnja, međutim, učinila je njezino umirovljenje kratkim. Trippe je ponovo stavljen u punu proviziju u Bostonu 25. jula 191e, poručnik (jg.) Roy P. Emrich koji je komandovao. Tijekom sljedećih osam mjeseci, Trippe se obučavao duž obale pripremajući se za sve vjerojatniji ulazak Sjedinjenih Država u Prvi svjetski rat. Sjedinjene Države objavile su rat Njemačkom carstvu 6. aprila 1917. Trippe je nastavio djelovati uz obalu do ranog početka. Maja, kada je ušla u Boston i započela pripreme za dužnost u inostranstvu.

Dana 21. maja 1917. razarač je očistio Boston za Veliku Britaniju. Nakon poziva u St. John's, Newfoundland, stigla je u Queenstown na južnoj obali Irske, lokaciju velike ratne baze američkih razarača. Zastala je samo toliko da napuni gorivo i popravi plovidbu prije nego što je 6. juna ispratila luku za svoju prvu patrolu. Iz Queenstowna je pratila savezničke konvoje na posljednjoj dionici njihovog putovanja od Amerike do Francuske i Engleske. Njeno područje djelovanja, koje se nalazilo u ratnoj zoni koju je Njemačka 5. februara 1915. uspostavila oko Britanskih otoka, bilo je glavno lovište podmornica Flote otvorenog mora. Kada nije sudjelovao u praćenju konvoja, Trippe je patrolirao vodama oko Queenstowna u nastojanju da otkrije i uništi što više neprijateljskih podmornica.

Ratni brod je imao samo jedno provjereno grebanje njemačkim podmornicama. Dana 18. septembra 1917., ona i Jacob Jones (razarač br. 61) parili su u društvu nekih 350 milja zapadno od Bresta, u Francuskoj, kada je, nešto poslije 0200, ugledala karakteristično buđenje periskopa podmornice koja je trčala paralelnim kursom , ali u suprotnom smjeru. Trippe je ispustio dubinske naboje, ali bez "vidljivih rezultata", i nastavio sastanak na istočnom konvoju. Te noći borila se s drugim protivnikom-morem. U bijesnoj oluji talasi su nosili platformu njenog desnog desnog topa sa pištolja. Trippe je, međutim, uspješno dovezla svoj konvoj u Quiberon Bay, Francuska, brzo izvršila popravke i nastavila svoju iscrpljujuću rutinu.

Kroz posljednju godinu rata, Trippe i njeni sestrinski brodovi polako su pobjeđivali neprijatelja. Konvoji trgovačkih brodova nosili su trupe i zalihe u Francusku, gdje je vojska saveznika stalno rasla. Do jeseni 1918. godine dostigli su tačku ogromne superiornosti nad onima Centralnih sila. 11. novembra, na dan potpisivanja primirja, Trippe je bio u luci u Queenstownu. Nešto više od mjesec dana kasnije, očistila je tu irsku luku, natočila gorivo na Azorskim otocima i Bermudima, te se vratila u Boston 3. januara 1919. Nakon šest mjeseci operacija duž istočne obale, razarač je 23. jula ušao u Mornaričko dvorište Philadelphije radi preaktivacije remont. Dana 6. novembra 1919. Trippe je stavljen van pogona i stavljen u rezervu u Philadelphiji.

Trippeova neaktivnost trajala je pet godina. Do 1924. godine zabrana je stvorila uspješan promet u krijumčarenju alkoholnih pića. Mala flota obalne straže, zadužena za zaustavljanje ilegalnog uvoza alkohola, nije bila jednaka zadatku. Slijedom toga, predsjednik Coolidge predložio je povećanje te flote za 20 neaktivnih razarača mornarice, a Kongres je 2. aprila 1924. odobrio potrebna sredstva. Obalska straža i radnici mornaričkog dvorišta preuredili su trup Trippea, oduzeli joj opremu za dubinsko punjenje i torpedne cijevi te uklonili jednu od njena četiri pištolja. 7. juna 1924. Trippe je prebačen u Ministarstvo finansija; i 24. juna stavljena je u funkciju Trippe (CG-20), poručnik Comdr. John H. Cornell, USCG, zapovijeda. Naredne četiri godine, bivši razarač mornarice djelovao je uz sjeveroistočnu obalu izvan New Londona, Conn., Kao rezač "patrole obalne straže".

Trippe je 5. januara 1929. smanjena provizija u New Londonu. Tog oktobra premeštena je u Stapleton, NY. Od januara do marta 1930. godine, remontovana je u njujorškom mornaričkom dvorištu. Nakon mjesec dana vježbi naoružanja u blizini Sankt Peterburga, Florida, 23. aprila se vratila u Stapleton kako bi nastavila operacije duž obale. Trippe je 18. decembra očistio Stapleton za Philadelphia Navy Yard. Obalska straža je 15. aprila 1931. godine Trippea u Philadelphiji deaktivirala i 2. maja vratila u mornaricu. Ostala je u rezervi u Philadelphiji do 1934. godine, kada je rashodovana. Njeno ime izbrisano je s popisa mornarice 5. srpnja 1934. Prodana je 22. kolovoza Michaelu Flynnu iz Brooklyna u New Yorku


Istorija

Nećemo vam dosaditi s dugim pričama o prošlosti otoka (nakon svega što idete na odmor). Umjesto toga navest ćemo samo neke ključne događaje u povijesti Bermuda:

DatumDogađaj
1505Španski kapetan Juan de Bermudez razgledava nenaseljeno ostrvo. Na kraju je dobio ime po njemu.
1543Možda su portugalski mornari doživjeli brodolom na Bermudima. Rok na ribnjaku Spittal sa natpisom „RP 1543“. Vjeruje se da RP znači Rex Portugaliae (kralj Portugala).
1603Španski galeon kojim je kapetan Diego Ramirez nasukao se na grebene Bermuda. Ramirez i njegova posada provode 3 sedmice na ostrvu dok izvode popravke na brodu. Ramirez prijavljuje ostrvo španskom kralju Filipu III, ali monarh ne pokazuje veliko interesovanje. Smatra se da se posada ulogorila u području župe Pembroke koja je sada poznata kao Spanish Point.
1609Londonska kompanija Virginia Company šalje flotu od 9 brodova iz Plymoutha u britansko naselje u Jamestownu u Virdžiniji. Flota nosi svježe zalihe i dodatne koloniste, a njima komanduje admiral Sir George Somers. Glavni brod Sea Venture uhvaćen je u oluji i stradao je na grebenima Bermuda. Somers iskrcava svih 150 posada i kolonista u blizini plaže Svete Katarine.
1610Koristeći spasenje iz Sea Venture -a i drvo sa autohtonog kedra, Somers i njegova posada grade dva broda, Deliverance i Patience. Brodovi su krenuli prema Virginiji kako bi ispunili svoju prvobitnu misiju. Dva čovjeka osuđena za krivična djela, Christopher Carter i Edward Waters, bježe i skrivaju se dok brodovi ne krenu.

Po dolasku u Jamestown, Somers nalazi naselje desetkovano bolešću, gladovanjem i napadima Indijanaca. Opskrba spašava koloniste u Jamestownu.

Somers se vraća na Bermude na strpljenju kako bi prikupio još zaliha, ali umire. Njegovo srce je sahranjeno u Somers Garden -u u St. Georgeu. Somerov nećak, Matthew, odvodi njegovo tijelo natrag u Englesku na Patienceu umjesto da se vrati u Virginiju.

Prije nego što Patience ode, Christopher Carter i Edward Waters uvjeravaju člana posade Edwarda Charda da ostane na otoku s njima. "Tri kralja Bermuda" vladaju ostrvom do 1612.

Srodni sadržaj

Pročitajte o načinu upravljanja otokom, prošlim i sadašnjim političkim strankama, izbornim rezultatima i ulozi guvernera i Velike Britanije.

Vodič kroz okruge otoka.

Saznajte šta pokreće ekonomiju. Pogledajte detaljne statističke podatke o BDP -u, uvozu i izvozu, državnim prihodima, prosječnim platama, dolascima posjetitelja i još mnogo toga.

Detaljne populacijske i demografske statistike, uključujući ukupno stanovništvo, broj muškaraca i žena, zemlju rođenja, rasne grupe, gustoću naseljenosti, starosne grupe, vjere i prihod domaćinstva.


Povijest Trippea II - Povijest

Ko je bio engleski kveker koji se predstavio u Portsmouthu, Rhode Island 1638. godine? I kako su njegov život i život njegove zajednice uticali na američku istoriju?

Engleski gospodin John Tripp smjestio se u Portsmouthu, Rhode Island

Jedno od dvanaestoro djece Johna Tripp -a i Isabel Moses, John Tripp rođen je u Lincolnshireu u Engleskoj 1610. Emigrirao je u Ameriku 1635. Prvo se nastanio u Bostonu gdje je bio zaposlen kao brodski stolar. Ubrzo nakon toga preselio se u Providence, Rhode Island (tada Aquidneck) nakon što je njegov ugovor o ropstvu prodan Randall Holdingu iz Portsmoutha.

30. aprila 1638. potpisao je zakletvu u Portsmouthu koja je glasila sljedeće: "Mi čija su imena potpisana priznajemo se pravnim subjektima Njegovog Veličanstva kralja Charlesa, i u njegovo ime se ovim obavezujemo u politiku civilnog tijela, njegove zakone prema pravdi. " Ranije te godine odbio je potpisati Portsmouth Compact, koji je prekinuo političke i vjerske veze s Majkom Engleskom. Očigledno, John je ostao postojan rojalist.

Godine 1641. otkupio je svoj ugovor o zakupu. Registar slobodnih ljudi u Portsmouthu navodi da je te godine on bio John Tripp, džentlmen. John je ubrzo postao aktivan član svoje zajednice i obnašao je najmanje desetak važnih javnih funkcija, uključujući komesara kolonije. U decembru 1647. godine, kao član Generalne skupštine u Providenceu, potpisao je prekrasan Pakt s akvidnekom koji je pozivao na ljudsku ljubav i slobodu.

Osnivač započinje lozu od preko 50.000 potomaka

Rodio je jedanaestoro djece s Mary Paine (1615, Engleska - 1687, Portsmouth, R.I.). Procjenjuje se da je John Tripp započeo sjevernoameričku lozu od preko 50.000 potomaka - pa je to razlog zašto ga jednostavno nazivaju osnivačem. Njegovi značajni potomci su američki predsjednik William Harding i Sir Winston Churchill. Juan Terry Trippe, koji je osnovao Pan American Airways, bio je potomak pukovnika Henryja Trippea (1632, Suffolk Co., Engleska - 1698, Dorchester Co., Maryland) koji je emigrirao u Ameriku 1664. Njegov potomak, poručnik mornarice SAD -a Trippe (1785 - 1810) je odlikovan Kongresnom medaljom časti za hrabrost tokom bitke kod Tripolija 1804.

Ostali poznati potomci i rođaci Johna Trippa su: predsjednik George Washington, predsjednik William Howard Taft, predsjednici Roosevelt, predsjednik Nixon, predsjednik Carter, predsjednici Bush, predsjednik Barack Obama i Marilyn Monroe. Takođe je u rodu s princom Charlesom od Walesa i pokojnom princezom Dianom Spencer. On je takođe povezan sa Anne Hutchinson, njegovom slavnom kolonijalnom savremenicom, kroz lozu Spencer. Baronet Holandije Tripp vuče korijene direktno iz drevne loze Howard/Tripp/Owen koja je postojala prije Normanskog osvajanja Engleske i Walesa u kasnom dijelu 11. stoljeća poslije Krista.

Nakon njegove smrti 1678. godine, njegovih pet sinova naslijedilo je ogromne količine poljoprivrednog zemljišta koje je uspio steći na Rhode Islandu, posebno na Dartmouthu i Hogg Islandu. Njegove kćerke udale su se u više od 100 prvih porodica sa Rhode Islanda.

Kralj Henrik V preimenuje heroja bojnog polja Howard u Tripp

Pojava prezimena Tripp u Engleskoj vodi se do preimenovanja Henrija V u najmlađeg sina lorda Howarda 1415. Sljedeći natpis ispod grba Tripp, ukrašen na drevnoj škrinji u posjedu velečasnog Charlesa Trippa, oko 1850. godine:

Ovo postignuće dato je petom sinu mog lorda Howarda pri opsadi kralja Bullaguea Harryja Petog, a tamo su ga pitali kako su zauzeli grad i dvorac? Howard je odgovorio: "Spotaknuo sam se o zidove." Kaže Njegovo Veličanstvo, "Tripp će biti po vašem imenu, a ne više Howard", i počastio ga ljestvicom za njegovu bandu ili ukras.

On je bio korijenski predak Tripp loze u Sjevernoj Americi koja je započela kao rezultat blistave hrabrosti pokazane kada je "zaplesao" uz ljestve kako bi nadvisio zidine Burgundskog dvorca. Može se samo zamisliti iskreni ponos i ushićenje koje je Henry V osjetio prema mladom plemiću.

John Tripp, potomak House of Howard

Nema sumnje da je John Tripp došao iz loze Tripps iz kuće Howard. Takođe je izvjesno da je postojala drevna porodična veza Tripp -Howard, posebno uzimajući u obzir Jakov II (1633. - 1701.) koji je u svojoj autobiografiji naveo da je „Mr. Tripp i gospodin Howard ”pomogli su mu u bijegu u Francusku nakon odrubljivanja glave Karlu I 1649. Štaviše, prema svemu sudeći, John Tripp se uvijek držao kao engleski džentlmen od trenutka kada je kročio na američko tlo do svoje smrti.

Grb Tripp/Howard prikazan je na dnu ukrasa od vitraja postavljenog u anglikanskoj crkvi na Novom Zelandu 1899. godine kao spomen na Charlesa Georgea Tripa. Bio je unuk po majci ser Williama Owena († 1851), osmog baroneta Owena iz Pembrokeshirea i brat velečasnog Henryja Tripa (1816 - 1897).

Kuća Howard Crest sadrži Howard Augmentation, izmijenjeni kraljevski grb Škotske sa strijelom koja probija lavova usta. Henrik VIII je dodijelio povećanje drugom vojvodi od Norfolka, Thomasu Howardu, za pobjedu protiv invazivnih Škota u bitci kod Floddena 1513.

Grb vojvode od Norfolka s isecanjem Howardovog grebena s grebenima Thomasa od Brothertona, Warennea i Fitzalana. Dvije palice postavljene iza predstavljaju vojvodin ured kao Earl Marshall i Hereditary Marshall of England. Latinski moto glasi: "Samo je vrlina nepokorena".

John Tripp iz Portsmoutha, Rhode Island

Historijsko društvo Old Dartmouth (New Bedford): Historijske skice Old Dartmouth, Vol. 2, George H. Tripp, str. 12

Genealoški i heraldički rječnik džentlmena Velike Britanije i Irske, John Burke Esq., 1852, str. 1433-1434

Moja pra-prabaka, Sarah Tripp (1851-1920), bila je direktni potomak Johna Trippa, osnivača. Njen unuk i moj djed, Lowell Outwater Collins (1900. - 1981.), nazvali su kompaniju zajedničkih fondova Founders Mutual Depositor Corporation, koju je osnovao krajem 1930 -ih u znak sjećanja na njega. Korporacija je u vlasništvu Dreyfus Corporation, podružnice Bank of New York.


Povijest Trippea II - Povijest

Uzmimo na primjer avione. Sredinom 1950 -ih gotovo svi donosioci odluka u avioprevoznicima - to jest svi osim Juan Trippea iz Pan Am -a - razmišljali su o lakom i postupnom prelasku s provjerene i pouzdane flote aviona na klip koji su još kupovali, na konačnu upotrebu turbina avioni na motor. Ali Trippe je vidio priliku koju nitko drugi nije mogao zamisliti. Pretpostavljalo se da će budućnost jednoga dana značiti putovanje avionom za mase, ali samo je on mogao vidjeti da je budućnost udaljena samo dvije ili tri godine.

Nije važno što je spektakularan neuspjeh prve generacije mlaznih transportera britanske komete (lijep, ali sa fatalnom greškom) ostavio svijet duboko skeptičnim u pogledu budućnosti transporta civilnih aviona. Zahvaljujući svojoj zapovjedničkoj viziji, poslovnoj oštroumnosti, uvjerljivoj ličnosti, a ne najmanje važno i kockarovoj toleranciji na rizik, Juan Trippe je preuredio univerzum komercijalnog zračnog prijevoza. Boeing -ovi Bill Allen i Donald Douglas vješto su izmišljeni u stvaranju zapanjujućih mlaznih aviona koji bi odgovarali Trippeovoj viziji za Pan American, a u najkraćem roku ostali svjetski avioprevoznici bili su prisiljeni slijediti njegovo vodstvo. Prije nego što su pedesete završile, postojao je novi standard za putovanja avionom - godine prije onoga što je ranije bilo prihvaćeno kao najsuvremenije. "Jet-age" 1960-ih jednostavno ne bi bilo bez Juana Trippea.

Ovo je samo jedan primjer onoga što je Juan Trippe značio svijetu. Njegova postignuća i povijesni ugled zaslužuju obilje informativnih izvora, pa nam u tom cilju sa zadovoljstvom pružamo ove veze do izvora koji ukazuju na njegov život i dostignuća. Veza do prezentacije

ČASOPISI

Time Magazine. 31. jula 1933
Naslovna priča.

Time Magazine. 28. marta 1949
Naslovna priča.

Time Magazine. 7. decembra 1998
Juan Trippe: Pilot mlaznog doba
Autor Richard Branson

JUAN TRIPPE ONLINE

Hotel Interactive. Decembra 2006
Trippe Down Memory Lane: Iako je preduzetnik Juan Trippe poznat po pokretanju Pan Am World Airways -a, on je također pokrenuo InterContinental Hotels i usvojio mnoge sada standardne industrijske prakse
Autor Stanley Turkel

Pan American World Airways: Historija vazduhoplovstva riječima svojih ljudi (James James Patrick Baldwin & amp; Jeff Kriendler, sa Leslie Giles)
Asistentica Juana Trippea, Kathleen Clair
Poglavlje iz antologije.

Yale Alumni Magazine, novembar/decembar 2012
Čovek koji je smanjio svet
Autor Judth Ann Schiff

FOTOGRAFIJE

Arhiva fotografija časopisa Life - Juan Trippe, 1941. - domaćin Google: Pratite trag slika časopisa Juan Trippe Life Magazine klikom na posljednju sličicu svakog seta.


Povijest Trippea II - Povijest

Ova stranica sadrži dodatne prikaze vezane za USS Trippe (DE-1075, kasnije FF-1075).

Ako želite reprodukcije veće rezolucije od ovdje prikazanih digitalnih slika, pogledajte: & quotKako nabaviti fotografske reprodukcije. & Quot

Kliknite na malu fotografiju da biste ponudili veći prikaz iste slike.

U toku, nakon što je opremljen uvećanim hangarima za helikoptere i palubom za let.
Fotografiju je primio Pomorski fotografski centar u februaru 1975.

Službena fotografija američke mornarice.

Online slika: 138KB 740 x 610 piksela

Reprodukcije ove slike mogu biti dostupne i putem fotografskog reprodukcionog sistema Nacionalnog arhiva kao Fotografija # 428-N-1160984.

U toku, oko 1974. godine, nakon što joj je opremljen uvećan hangar za helikoptere.
Ova slika je primljena od komandanta Trippea 6. decembra 1974. godine.

Službena fotografija američke mornarice iz zbirki Pomorskog povijesnog centra.

Online slika: 131KB 740 x 615 piksela

U toku u blizini Porto de Heirro, Venecuela, dok je učestvovao u vježbi Unitas XX, oko juna-oktobra 1979.
Fotografirao PH2 K. Brewer, USN.

Službena fotografija američke mornarice iz zbirki Pomorskog povijesnog centra.

Online slika: 104KB 740 x 610 piksela

U toku, oko 1985. ili kasnije, nakon što je opremljen pramčanim zidom i sistemom oružja za zatvaranje od 20 mm.

Službena fotografija američke mornarice iz zbirki Pomorskog povijesnog centra.

Online slika: 72KB 740 x 530 piksela

Helikopter SH-2F sa svoje strane na palubi broda nakon pada. Fotografisano na Roosevelt Roads, Portoriko, februara 1978.

Službena fotografija američke mornarice.

Online slika: 87KB 740 x 605 piksela

Reprodukcije ove slike mogu biti dostupne i putem fotografskog reprodukcionog sistema Nacionalnog arhiva kao Fotografija # 428-N-1172866.

Zakrpa jakne sa oznakama koje je brod koristio 1971. godine.

Ljubaznošću kapetana G.F. Swainson, USN, 1970.

Fotografija američkog pomorskog historijskog centra.

Online slika: 149KB ​​650 x 675 piksela

Fotografija brodske ploče s historijskim podacima, snimljena 4. septembra 1970.

Službena fotografija američke mornarice iz zbirki Pomorskog povijesnog centra.

Online slika: 193KB 740 x 630 piksela

Brodski sponzor, gospođa John S. Foster, Jr., drži svoj govor tokom ceremonija lansiranja u brodogradilištu Avondale, Westwego, Louisiana, 1. novembra 1969. godine.

Službena fotografija američke mornarice.

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Reprodukcije ove slike mogu biti dostupne i putem fotografskog reprodukcionog sistema Nacionalnog arhiva kao Fotografija # 428-N-1142039.

Posada se priprema za ukrcavanje na brod tokom ceremonija puštanja u rad, održanih u Pier & quotAlfa & quot; Mornaričko brodogradilište Charleston, Južna Karolina, 19. septembra 1970.
Snimio foto -laboratorija komandanta Šeste mornaričke oblasti.

Službena fotografija američke mornarice iz zbirki Pomorskog povijesnog centra.

Online slika: 112KB 740 x 615 piksela

Posada upravlja ogradom kao što svira mornarički bend, tokom ceremonija puštanja u rad broda u Pier & quotAlfa & quot ;, Pomorsko brodogradilište Charleston, Južna Karolina, 19. septembra 1970.
Snimio foto -laboratorija komandanta Šeste mornaričke oblasti.

Službena fotografija američke mornarice iz zbirki Pomorskog povijesnog centra.

Online slika: 106KB 740 x 620 piksela

Gospodin Juan T. Trippe, počasni predsjednik Pan American World Airwaysa, uručuje uslugu čaja od srebra za brodsku garderobu komandantu Allenu B. Higginbothamu, njenom zapovjedniku, tokom ceremonija puštanja Trippea u brodogradilište Charleston u Južnoj Karolini , 19. septembra 1970.
Snimio foto -laboratorija komandanta Šeste mornaričke oblasti.


Pan Am ostaje uzemljen. U kulturi, to jest.

Dana 26. oktobra 1958. godine, aviokompanija je izvršila istorijski let iz New Yorka za Pariz koji je pomogao u dolasku mlaznih aviona.


Avion Pan Am poletio je iz New Yorka za Pariz 26. oktobra 1958. uveče-transatlantski let koji su mnogi najavljivali u zoru mlaznog doba.

26. oktobra 1958. godine Pan American World Airways je napravio prvi komercijalni direktni let iz New Yorka za Pariz. Marširajući orkestar svirao je Johna Philipa Sousu dok su se gosti ukrcavali u avion, gdje je 111 putnika večeralo u kuhinji iz Maxim & rsquos -a u Parizu. Dvadeset pet godina kasnije, aviokompanija je obilježila putovanje pozvavši poznate ličnosti poput Earthe Kitt i boksačkog šampiona Floyda Pattersona u Pariz u jednom od originalnih aviona Boeing 707. Kad se tamo našla, posada je bila slavljena na zabavi.

Pan Am je prestao s radom 1991. godine. Ali za mnoge je to još uvijek sinonim za luksuzno putovanje avionom. I premda putovanje 1958. nije bio prvi transatlantski let jedne avio-kompanije, bio je to možda i najznačajniji, prema tadašnjim vijestima. Pan Am je ušao u eru komercijalnih avionskih putovanja svakodnevnim letovima za London i Pariz koji su na kraju olakšali turistima - ne samo bogatim patronima - da vide svijet.


Ovo je 1958. stvorio Pan Am
pamflet za hroniku istorije
svojih aviona i predstaviti
novi Boeing 707 Jet Clipper.
U pamfletu iz 1960 -ih objavljeno je da,
„Uz magiju Jet brzine, možete biti
u Evropi za manje od 7 sati. & quot

& ldquoTo je promijenilo igru, & rdquo je rekla Gabriella Williams, bibliotekarka sa Univerziteta u Miamiju koja nadgleda digitalizaciju jedne od najvećih zbirki Pan Am brošura, časopisa, reklama i finansijskih izvještaja. & ldquoViše ljudi si je moglo priuštiti ulazak u avione. Zora mlaznog doba implementirala je ekonomsku klasu. & Rdquo

Pan Am & rsquos status kulturne ikone opstaje gotovo tri decenije nakon što se aviokompanija srušila pod ogromnim dugom. Na eBayu se prodaju Pan Am artikli, uključujući putne torbe, pribor za jelo i krila kapetana i rsquosa. I dalje se pamti u televiziji, filmovima i dokumentarcima. Istorijska fondacija Pan Am nudi putovanja u Maroko, Iran i Egipat.

Gospođa Williams je rekla da je polovina posjeta univerzitetskim bibliotekama sa posebnim zbirkama, gdje se nalazi Pan Am katalog, bilo od ljudi koji su zainteresovani za aviokompaniju.

& ldquo Brend je u jednom trenutku bio najveći na svijetu, & rdquo je rekla.

Pan Am je prvi međunarodni let izveo u oktobru 1927. godine i postao najprepoznatljivija američka aviokompanija, poznata po elegantnoj usluzi, drskim pilotima i avanturističkim putovanjima. Ranije te godine, osnivač Pan Am & rsquosa, Juan T. Trippe, spojio je tri aviokompanije kako bi osnovao kompaniju nakon što je primio ugovor od Poštanske službe Sjedinjenih Država za isporuku pošte između Key Westa, Fla. I Havane. Pan Am je na svoje prvo putovanje isporučio 250 funti pošte na Kubu. U roku od godinu dana uspostavit će redovne usluge ostrvskoj državi.


Juan T. Trippe, u sredini, osnivač Pan Ama, s Waldom Lynchom, lijevo, i Sam Miller,
koji je upravljao najavljenim komercijalnim letom avioprevoznika od New Yorka do Pariza 26. oktobra 1958. godine.

Trippe je imao smisla za marketing i odnose s javnošću. Godine 1928. angažovao je pilota Charlesa Lindbergha, koji je postao svjetski poznat godinu dana ranije, kada je napravio prvi samostalni direktni let između New Yorka i Pariza, kao savjetnika. Lindbergh je trebao istraživati ​​nove rute u Južnoj Americi, Evropi i Africi za aviokompaniju. Do ranih 1930 -ih, Pan Am je proširio svoju uslugu širom Kariba i Latinske Amerike.

Pan Am je 1933. godine kupio China Airways Federal, što mu je omogućilo širenje u Kinu. Te godine, Trippe, koji je rođen 1899. u Sea Bright -u, NJ, sin investicionog bankara, bio je na naslovnici Vrijeme. No, putovanje avionom tada je bilo skupo, uglavnom za poslovne ljude i bogate. Zračni prijevoznici nastojali su se razlikovati od prvoklasnih usluga, a ne po niskim cijenama, kao što to čine zračne kompanije u današnje vrijeme. Razmislite o ovome: Let za Pariz 1958. godine koštao je putnike ekonomske klase 489,60 USD, odnosno oko 4.350 USD danas.

„Oni su se takmičili u tome ko je ponudio najviše poslastica“, rekla je gospođa Williams.

To je značilo da je veliki dio stanovništva bio prisiljen ostati kod kuće. Edward S. Trippe, sin Juana Trippea, prisjetio se svog prvog 14-satnog leta za Evropu na DC-6, avionu kompanije Douglas Aircraft Company. "Sve je bilo prvoklasno", rekao je gospodin Trippe, koji je predsjednik Pan Am Historical Foundation. “Spavali smo u krevetima koje smo povlačili iznad sjedala. Bio je to luksuzan događaj. ”


Pan Am je promovirao usluge
koje su putnici primili
na svojim transatlantskim letovima.
Nada Rajden, stjuardesa Pan Am -a,
dijelio novine putnicima
na prvom komercijalnom direktnom letu
od New Yorka do Pariza.

Međutim, 1958. godine njegov otac i rukovoditelji aviokompanija krenuli su u ono što će postati zlatno doba putovanja avionom, podstaknuto velikim dijelom novom tehnologijom koja je omogućila letenje na dugim dionicama bez potrebe za dolijevanjem goriva. Godine 1955. Pan Am je kupio nekoliko Boeinga 707, prvih komercijalno uspješnih aviona koji su proizvedeni. Gospodin Trippe je rekao da je njegov otac želio otvoriti međunarodna tržišta i smanjiti avionske karte.

"Želio je novu generaciju koja je mogla vidjeti gdje su im preci rođeni", rekao je gospodin Trippe. „Pan Am je imao međunarodni karakter. Njegova cijela slika bila je London, Havaji, Afrika, Japan, Rim. Oglašavanje je dočaralo ove slike. Mogao bi otići tamo. ”

Pan Am su kasnije spopale nevolje. Visoke cijene goriva 1970 -ih potresle su industriju. 1988. bomba je eksplodirala na transatlantskom letu iznad Lockerbieja u Škotskoj, usmrtivši 259 ljudi na brodu. Kompanija je proglasila bankrot 1991.

Let 26. oktobra 1958. trajao je više od sedam sati. Bilo je predviđeno da se nastavi put Rima nakon Pariza, ali je otkazan nakon što je talijanska vlada uvela novu naknadu za avionske karte, prema članku u The New York Times. Od uspjeha leta između New Yorka i Pariza, The Times rekao je: "Iza njega se niže duga povorka komercijalnih mlaznih letova."

Gospodin Trippe je bio na letu od 25. godišnjice. Rekao je da se sjeća da je u avionu vidio glumicu Maureen O'Hara, koja je kasnije bila vlasnica vlastite kompanije za hidroavione. "Doba aviona pokrenulo nas je u novu eru", rekao je. "Smanjila je svijet."


TRIPPE MANUFACTURING COMPANY protiv NILES AUDIO CORPORATION

TRIPPE MANUFACTURING COMPANY, kompanija iz Ilinoisa, žalioc protiv NILES AUDIO CORPORATION, korporacija sa Floride.

Br. 03-4101.

Odlučeno: 18. marta 2005

Trippe Manufacturing Co. (dalje u tekstu: Trippe) ulaže žalbu na nalog kojim se odbija njegov zahtjev za suđenje po kratkom postupku i odobrava prijedlog Niles Audio Corporation (dalje u tekstu: Niles) za izricanje arbitraže. Budući da se dužnost arbitraže mora temeljiti na ugovornoj obvezi, poništavamo redoslijed uvjerljive arbitraže u pogledu potraživanja koja je iznio Niles, a koji nisu povezani sa obavezama koje je Trippe izričito preuzeo putem Ugovora o kupoprodaji imovine (u daljnjem tekstu: APA) koji je stupio na snagu 29. augusta 2001. Međutim, u onoj mjeri u kojoj je Trippe izričito preuzeo obaveze prema APA -i, potvrđena je naredba koja uvjerava arbitražu.

Niles proizvodi i prodaje audio opremu za široku potrošnju. Početkom 1998. Niles je sklopio Ugovor o ekskluzivnom distributeru (“EDA”) sa SL Waber, Inc. (“Waber”). Prema uvjetima EDA -e, Waber je trebao proizvoditi zaštitu od prenapona za Nilesa. Waber je također bio dužan pružati doživotnu servisnu podršku za proizvod, pružati besplatnu telefonsku liniju za korisničku podršku i rješavati zahtjeve pod garancijom povezane opreme (“CEG”) koji pokrivaju oštećenja elektroničke opreme povezane sa zaštitom od prenapona. Osim toga, Waber se obavezao da će Nilesu kvartalno podnositi izvještaje o potraživanjima servisa i garancije. Klauzula 12 (f) EDA -e, dijelom navodi:

Svi sporovi, potraživanja i kontroverze koji proizlaze iz ovog Ugovora ili njihovog kršenja bit će riješeni arbitražom preko Američkog udruženja za arbitražu u skladu s njegovim pravilima i propisima.

Prema Nilesu, bilo je nekoliko tehničkih problema sa zaštitom od prenapona, a nakon što je prodao nekoliko hiljada jedinica, Niles je otkazao sve neizvršene narudžbe početkom 2001.

Trippe, proizvođač, stupio je u APA sa Waberom, stupio na snagu 29. avgusta 2001. Prema uslovima ugovora, Trippe je stekao nekoliko sredstava povezanih sa Waberovim zaštitom od prenapona, uključujući Waberova prava na Niles Audio Contract. APA 1.1 (h) APA Raspored 1.1 (h). U odredbi 1.3 APA -e, Trippe je izričito preuzeo određene Waberove obveze, uključujući:

(d) Sve obveze, obveze i obveze za sve garancije proizvoda i garancije povezane opreme koje pokrivaju sve proizvode prodane korisnicima Vaber poslovanja, bez obzira na to je li proizvod proizveden, sastavljen ili prodan prije, na ili nakon datuma Zatvaranja.

(f) Sve obaveze i obaveze kompanije [Waber] nastale nakon [21. avgusta 2001.] prema svakom od značajnih ugovora navedenih u Dodatku 1.1 (h) Rasporeda otkrivanja podataka.

Under the terms of the agreement, Trippe disclaimed responsibility for any debt, obligation, or liability owed by Waber beyond those expressly assumed.

In late 2002, Niles filed a demand for arbitration naming, among others, Waber and Trippe. With regard to Trippe, Niles requested the following relief: (1) a declaratory judgment binding Trippe to the agreement between Niles and Waber, (2) an order enjoining Trippe from discontinuing customer service support, warranty repairs, fulfilling the CEG, or discontinuing reporting obligations to Niles as required by the EDA, (3) attorneys' fees and costs, and (4) money damages. Trippe filed the present motion seeking both a declaration that the EDA arbitration clause is not binding on Trippe and an order enjoining Niles from pursuing its claims against Trippe in the arbitration proceeding. Niles responded with a motion to compel arbitration. The District Court granted Niles's motion, and this appeal followed.

In granting Niles's motion to compel arbitration, the District Court did not distinguish between claims arising out of Trippe's warranty and CEG obligations and other liabilities arising out of the EDA nor did the District Court distinguish claims according to whether they arose before or after the effective date of the APA.

We exercise plenary review over the District Court's decision to compel arbitration. See Bouriez v. Carnegie Mellon University, 359 F.3d 292, 294 (3d Cir.2004). We also exercise plenary review over a denial of summary judgment. See Bartnicki v. Vopper, 200 F.3d 109, 114 (3d Cir.1999).

This arbitrability dispute is connected with a transaction involving interstate commerce, and is therefore governed by the Federal Arbitration Act, 9 U.S.C. § 1 et seq. (“The FAA”). The FAA instructs courts to refer to principles of applicable state law when determining the existence and scope of an agreement to arbitrate. See Volt Info. Sciences, Inc. v. Bd. of Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior Univ., 489 U.S. 468, 475, 109 S.Ct. 1248, 103 L.Ed.2d 488 (1989). Although the EDA calls for the application of New Jersey law to the construction of its terms, this case does not directly implicate the enforceability of the EDA arbitration clause, but rather whether Trippe assumed the duty to arbitrate according to that clause by entering into the APA with Waber. Because we are concerned with the duties assumed by Trippe under the APA, the choice of law provision of that agreement, calling for the application of New York law, applies.

A motion to compel arbitration calls for a two-step inquiry into (1) whether a valid agreement to arbitrate exists and (2) whether the particular dispute falls within the scope of that agreement. See PaineWebber, Inc. v. Hartmann, 921 F.2d 507, 511 (3d Cir.1990), overruled on other grounds by Howsam v. Dean Witter Reynolds, 537 U.S. 79, 85, 123 S.Ct. 588, 154 L.Ed.2d 491 (2002). When a dispute consists of several claims, the court must determine on an issue-by-issue basis whether a party bears a duty to arbitrate. See Painewebber Inc. v. Hofmann, 984 F.2d 1372, 1376-77 (3d Cir.1993). When determining both the existence and the scope of an arbitration agreement, there is a presumption in favor of arbitrability. “[A]n order to arbitrate the particular grievance should not be denied unless it may be said with positive assurance that the arbitration clause is not susceptible of an interpretation that covers the asserted dispute.” AT & T Technologies, Inc. v. Communications Workers of America, 475 U.S. 643, 650, 106 S.Ct. 1415, 89 L.Ed.2d 648 (1986).

Although Trippe is not a signatory to the EDA, the EDA arbitration clause may nevertheless be enforceable against it. There are five theories for binding nonsignatories to arbitration agreements: (1) incorporation by reference, (2) assumption, (3) agency, (4) veil-piercing/alter ego, and (5) estoppel. Mag Portfolio Consult, Gmbh v. Merlin Biomed Group, LLC, 268 F.3d 58, 61 (2d Cir.2001). Niles contends that when Trippe expressly assumed certain of Waber's obligations under the EDA, it also assumed the duty to arbitrate disputes related to those obligations. Niles further argues that Trippe is bound by the EDA arbitration clause under theories of incorporation and estoppel. These arguments are addressed in turn.

Under New York law, the assignee of rights under a bilateral contract is not bound to perform the assignor's duties under the contract unless he expressly assumes that obligation. Sillman v. Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp., 3 N.Y.2d 395, 165 N.Y.S.2d 498, 144 N.E.2d 387, 391 (1957). That said, when an assignee assumes the liabilities of an assignor, it is bound by an arbitration clause in the underlying contract. Blum's, Inc. v. Ferro Union Corporation, 36 A.D.2d 584, 318 N.Y.S.2d 414, 415 (1st Dept.1971) see generally Weinstein, Korn, & Miller, 1 N.Y. Civil Practice: CPLR P 7503.08. Trippe argues that the arbitration clause constitutes an obligation that is distinct and severable from the substantive duties imposed by the EDA and that therefore no agreement to arbitrate exists because the clause was not independently expressly assumed. This argument is not convincing because “an assignment cannot alter a contract's bargained-for remedial measures, for then the assignment would change the very nature of the rights assigned.” GMAC Commercial Credit, LLC v. Springs Industries, Inc., 171 F.Supp.2d 209, 216 (S.D.N.Y.2001) (citing Septembertide Publishing v. Stein and Day, 884 F.2d 675, 682 (2d Cir.1989)). Because the EDA arbitration clause covered all disputes arising under that agreement, Trippe's agreement to arbitrate with Niles is coextensive with the substantive obligations assumed by Trippe under the APA.

This conclusion is entirely consistent with the case on which Trippe principally relies, i.e., Gruntal & Co., Inc. v. Steinberg, 854 F.Supp. 324 (D.N.J. 1994). In Gruntal, the assignee expressly and without exception disclaimed liability for the assignor's obligations arising before the effective date of the agreement, and all of the plaintiff's claims were related to events prior to that date. Gruntal, 854 F.Supp. at 336. Although Trippe argues that claims asserted by Niles in the Demand relate to events and transactions that occurred long before the APA effective date, this is not conclusive of the issue before us some of Niles's claims relate to events that took place after the effective date, and some of Trippe's assumed obligations reach back prior to that date. First, Trippe expressly assumed liability for “all product warranty and connected equipment guarantees covering all products sold to customers of the Waber Business, regardless of whether the product was manufactured, assembled or sold prior to, on or after the date of Closing.” APA 1.3(d). Because the duty to arbitrate attached to these obligations, Trippe is bound to arbitrate Niles's warranty and CEG claims. Second, Trippe expressly assumed liability arising out of the Niles Audio Contract after the effective date and is therefore bound to arbitrate those claims as well. Finally, because Trippe did not assume Waber's obligations arising prior to the effective date of the agreement, with the exception of the warranty and CEG obligations, Trippe did not agree to arbitrate claims related to those unassumed obligations.

Because Trippe agreed to arbitrate disputes related to obligations expressly assumed by the APA, an order compelling arbitration is proper if Niles's claims are within the scope of that agreement to arbitrate. The language of clause 12(f) of the EDA is very broad, encompassing “[a]ll disputes, claims, and controversies arising under this Agreement, or a breach thereof․” All of Niles's claims presented in its demand for arbitration fall within the scope of this clause. The limiting factor with regard to Trippe is not the scope of the arbitration clause, but the existence of the agreement. We therefore hold that the order compelling arbitration is correct with respect to any claim arising out of the EDA after August 21, 2001, and to all claims related to the warranty and CEG obligations.

Niles argues that the entirety of Waber's obligations under the EDA are binding on Trippe, including an unlimited duty to arbitrate. In an effort to achieve this result, Niles invokes the theory of incorporation by reference, citing Exchange Mut. Ins. Co. v. Haskell Co., 742 F.2d 274 (6th Cir.1984). The theory of incorporation by reference is relevant to the interpretation of a contract that expressly adopts the terms and conditions of an earlier agreement. Although Trippe acquired some of Waber's rights under the EDA by entering into the APA, it is not accurate to say that the parties intended for the EDA to inform the APA's construction. Rather, the EDA is treated as a purchased asset by the APA. Niles cannot expand Trippe's duty to arbitrate under this theory.

Niles argues that because Trippe embraced the EDA, Trippe should be equitably estopped from challenging the arbitration clause, citing Bouriez, 359 F.3d 292. As in Bouriez, however, there is no evidence that Trippe directly benefitted from the assignment of Waber's rights to the Niles contract and therefore no grounds for invoking the equitable power to bind a non-signatory to the arbitration clause in question.

We hold that Trippe must arbitrate claims arising out of the obligations expressly assumed in the APA, specifically, claims related to warranty and CEG obligations and all claims arising after August 21, 2001. To the extent that the District Court's order conforms with this holding, it is affirmed. To the extent that the order compelling arbitration encompassed claims unrelated to warranty and CEG obligations that arose prior to August 21, 2001, it is reversed.


History of Trippe II - History

Graf Spee
The first major naval campaign of Word War II, took place when the British navy pursued the Graf Sree, a German battlecruiser who was on a mission to attack British merchant vessels. Between September 30 and December 7, 1939 the Graf Spee, under the command of Captain Hans Langsdorff sank nine cargo ships with a total tonnage of 50,089. Not a single crewmen or passenger on any of the sunk vessels was killed.

The British navy correctly deduced that the Graf Sree would next head for the area off of Montevideo to intercept more shipping. A British task force composed of the cruisers Ajax, Achilles and Exeter converged on Graf Spree. On the morning of December 12, 1939 the found the Graf Spee. The Graf Spee opened fire first, damaging the Exeter. All three British troops responded. The British ships responded. In the ensuing battle both the British ships and the Graf Spee were damaged, but the cumulative effect of three British ships damaged the Graf Spee severely. The Graf Spee headed for Montevideo requesting time for repairs. The Uruguayans refused, while the British rushed additional forces toward Montevideo. Captain Langsdorff then decided to scuttle the Graf Spee in Montevideo harbor.

Pearl Harbor

The War between Japan and the United States began at 6:37 in the morning of December 7th. The destroyer Ward, depth charged a Japanese midget submarine outside the entrance to Pearl Harbor. No warning was passed to the commanders of Pearl Harbor. At 7:58 the word went out AIR RAID PEARL Harbor-This is no Drill”
When the Japanese attacked Eight battleships, five cruisers, twenty six destroyers and various other auxiliary ships were in port.
The first ship to be hit was the battleship West Virginia. It took a half dozen bomb and torpedo hits. Quick damage control on the part of a couple of junior officers aboard the West Virginia kept it from capsizing and thus it settled upright, saving the majority of its crew.
The battleship Oklahoma capsized after receiving five torpedo hits. 415 officers and men went down with it.
The battleship Nevada was the only battleship to get under way, but it was hit by five bombs. It was beached at Waipo Point.

At 756 an 1,800 pound bomb exploded in the ammunition magazine of the Arizona. It set off a series of explosions that sunk the ship in a matter of minutes, killing 1,103 of its crew of 1,411.
At 8:04 two torpedo struck the battleship California, it sunk slowly to the bottom.
Both the Battleships Tennessee and Maryland were damaged by bombs but did not sink. The target ship Utah was struck by two torpedoes and it capsized. Finally the battleship Pennsylvania which was in drydock was hit by one 550 pound bomb.

The British navy at the direction of Prime Minister Churchill sent two of there leading battleships the Repulse and the Prince of Wales to the Pacific. The ships were supposed to be accompanied by the carrier Indomitable, but she had run aground at Jamaica. Thus the Repulse and Prince of Wales proceeded from Singapore to intercept the advancing Japanese forces without air support. The Japanese were tracking the force and on December 10 Japanese aircraft based in Indo China(Vietnam) attacked the British ships. A total of 85 Japanese aircraft attacked the two battleships. In a matter of hours both ships were sunk. The Japanese lost four aircraft, the British two of their most powerful ships. 840 officers and men went down with the ships.


On December 29th 1812 The USS Constitution commanded by Captain William Bainbridge, captures the HMS Java.

December 12, 1862- The USS Cairo is sunk by a Confederate mine on the Yazoo River.
On December 16th, 1941 the USS Swordfish operating the in China Sea sank the Japanese freighter the Atsutusan.

December 4th 1943- The USS Sailfish sinks the Japanese Escort Carrier Chuyo off Honshu Japan

December 16th 1943- The German Submarine U-73 is sunk by the US destroyers Trippe and Woolsey

December 19th 1943- The USS Grayback SS-208 sinks the Japanese destryoer Numakaze between Taiwan and Kyushu

December 11th 1944 USS Reid is sunk of Leyte by Kamikaze

December 15th 1944 USS Hawkbill sinks the Japanese Destroyer Momo


Vanished!: What Happened to the Hawaii Clipper?

A few minutes before 6 a.m. on July 29, 1938, Pan American Airways Captain Leonard Terletzky taxied the Clipper out of Apra Harbor, Hawaii Guam. Terletzky was more than halfway through the six-day, 9,000-mile flight from Alameda, California, to Hong Kong. He’d already made stops in Honolulu, Midway, Wake Island and now Guam. Manila, Macao and Hong Kong were still to come.

The longest part of the trip (Alameda to Hawaii) was behind him. Half the passengers had disembarked in Honolulu, leaving only six to be ferried by Terletzky’s eight-man crew on the island-hopping voyage across the Pacific. Other than leaving Guam 29 minutes late, everything on Pan Am trip No. 229 was running smoothly.

As Terletzky throttled up the big Martin M-130’s engines, the flying boat surged forward and began to skip across the wave tops. Fully loaded, the 52,000-pound aircraft needed 45 seconds to get airborne. Since the M-130 was just shy of 50,000 pounds leaving Guam, it took almost that long for it to clear the waves.

The Hawaii Clipper was a thing of beauty. An all-metal, high-wing flying boat with a riveted hull, it was 91 feet long and 25 feet high, with a 130-foot wingspan. One notable feature was its sponsons, or sea wings, near the waterline. These improved stability on the water, replacing the wing-mounted pontoons found on many other flying boats. In addition to providing aerodynamic lift, they kept ocean spray off the tail surfaces during takeoffs and landings.

When Juan Trippe, Pan Am’s CEO, set out to establish the world’s first transoceanic air service, he needed a flying boat with greater range, speed and payload than the Sikorsky S-42 the company was then flying. After a design competition between Sikorsky and Glenn Martin, Trippe settled on ordering three Martin M-130s at a cost of $417,000 apiece. Pan Am’s transpacific service was the first of its kind when it kicked off in November 1935. Though it was initially limited to airmail and freight, passengers followed within a year.

The M-130’s four Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp radial engines were important to its success. Any two of the 950-hp engines could keep the flying boat aloft. And with a 3,200- mile range, a cruising speed of 130 mph and a 17,000-foot service ceiling, the M-130 had the chops to cross the Pacific.

The Hawaii Clipper had already enjoyed a notable career. Built in Martin’s Baltimore factory, it was the third of Trippe’s M-130s (the first was the China Clipper, the second the Philippine Clipper). Delivered to Pan Am in March 1936, the Hawaii Clipper flew to Honolulu in May, where a 14-year-old girl fittingly christened it with coconut water. In October of that same year, the Hawaii Clipper completed the first scheduled passenger flight across the Pacific. Pan Am’s chief pilot, Captain Edwin C. Musick, was at the controls along with navigator Fred Noonan. That flight put Musick on the cover of Vrijeme magazine, helping to establish him as one of the world’s most famous pilots. Noonan gained notoriety the next year, when he served as Amelia Earhart’s navigator. Obviously, it was a mixed blessing.

In April 1937, the Hawaii Clipper completed Pan Am’s 100th Pacific crossing without a single passenger fatality, a remarkable accomplishment given the risks inherent in transoceanic flight’s early days. Terletzky’s job in July 1938 was to uphold the airline’s reputation for safety and reliability.

The 1,600-mile leg between Guam and Manila normally took 12½ hours. Od Hawaii Clipper had enough fuel for nearly 18 hours in the air, there was a comfortable safety margin.

Leo Terletzky was flying one of the era’s most advanced airplanes. The M-130 not only had dual flight controls and a double hull, but also a Sperry automatic pilot. The flying boat boasted six watertight compartments (any two of which could keep it afloat) and every conceivable safety device. These included three radios (a primary, auxiliary and emergency set), a saltwater still, hundreds of small balloons that could be released as search markers, inflatable life rafts, signal flares, a shotgun, fishing tackle and enough food to keep 15 people alive for a month. Four “international orange” stripes were painted on the wing tops, to help search and rescue personnel spot the plane if it was forced down at sea.

Jednom Hawaii Clipper was airborne, Terletzky settled back into his red leather pilot’s seat. As a senior captain, he had more than 9,000 flying hours, 1,600 of which had been spent over the Pacific in an M-130. He was also Pan Am’s “best sailor,” which meant he knew how to handle a Clipper on the water. One of the first pilots hired by Andre Priester, Pan Am’s famous head of operations, Terletzky had spent almost 10 years flying the company’s South American routes before he was transferred to the Pacific Division in 1936.

Pan Am’s pioneering use of multiple flight crews meant there was ample experience in the cockpit on July 29, 1938. First Officer Mark “Tex” Walker had more than 1,900 hours’ flying time, the majority in transpacific operations. Second Officer George M. Davis topped 1,000 hours of transpacific flight logged. Even the cabin steward, 40- year-old Ivan Parker Jr., was making his 26th Pacific crossing.

Before departing Guam, Terletzky had learned of a slight tropical depression near the Philippines. Scattered thunderstorms were typical summer weather in the Pacific, but he played it safe and plotted a course south of the depression.

Pan Am’s Pacific Clippers were paradigms of luxury, with service modeled after that aboard Pull- man railroad cars. A round trip to Hong Kong (including meals and overnight hotels) cost a whopping $1,937 (roughly $32,000 today). But for luxury, convenience and speed, the Clippers couldn’t be beat. As noon approached that day, the cabin steward was busy preparing lunch: consommé, creamed tuna on toast and fruit cocktail.

The aircraft’s main cabin was divided into several compartments. Sleeping berths were near the plane’s rear, with separate bathrooms for men and women. There was also a comfortable lounge amidships where passengers could stretch their legs, read or write letters. Smoking wasn’t permitted, but there was plenty of opportunity to play cards, backgammon or checkers, and conversation generally flowed freely in the 60 hours of flight time between California and Hong Kong.

Given the ticket price, it’s no surprise the Hawaii Clipper’s passengers were a distinguished lot. Dr. Earl B. McKinley, a noted bacteriologist and the dean of George Washington University’s Medical School, was carrying two new serums to test at the Culion Leprosy Colony in the Philippines. Fred C. Meier was the principal plant pathologist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Washington, D.C. He too was on his way to the Philippines, where he planned to study disease transmission in the upper atmosphere. Kenneth A. Kennedy, Pan Am’s Pacific Division traffic manager, was making the flight to check out the company’s overseas operations, which had recently been disrupted by the Japanese invasion of China. Major Howard C. French, commander of the 321st Observation Squadron, was on his way to monitor the Japanese bombing of Canton.

French wasn’t the only passenger with pro-China sympathies. Also aboard was 45-yearold Edward E. Wyman, vice president of export sales for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. Wyman’s company wanted to sell fighter aircraft to the Kuomintang, something the Japanese would not have been pleased about.

Perhaps the most unusual passenger was 38-year-old Wah-Sun Choy. An American of Chinese descent who called himself “Watson,” Choy was the wealthy owner of a small New Jersey–based restaurant company. He was so enamored with Pan Am’s flying boats that he’d named two of his cafes after the China Clipper. Choy was on his way to Hong Kong to visit his mother and sister, and also hoped to see his brother Frank, an air force pilot with the Nationalists. He was carrying $3 million in gold certificates (approximately $50 million today), which, as head of the Chinese War Relief Committee, he intended to donate to Chiang Kai-shek.

Terletzky began encountering rough weather shortly before lunch. Soon the headwinds and plowing through Hawaii Clipper was bucking heavy clouds fat with rain. The flight’s 33- year-old radio officer, William McCarty, was sending routine position reports every halfhour at that point. At 12:11 p.m. local time, he sent the following message: “Flying in rough air at 9100 feet. Temperature 13 degrees centigrade. Wind 19 knots per hour…. Position Latitude 12 degree 27’ North, Longitude 130 degree 40’ East dead reckoning… Rain…sky above covered by stratocumulus clouds, base 9200 feet…[flying last half-hour] on instruments.”

Eduardo Fernandez, the radio operator on Panay Island, near the Philippine coast, acknowledged receipt of the message. But when he indicated that he wanted to transmit the latest weather report, McCarty responded: “Stand by for one minute before sending as I am having trouble with rain static.” Fernandez did as he was told. But when he tried raising the Hawaii Clipper 60 seconds later, there was no response.

It wasn’t unusual for a plane to temporarily lose contact. The Hawaii Clipper wasn’t due in Manila for another three hours, so Fernandez decided to wait before raising any alarm. But as time passed and he still couldn’t contact Terletzky’s plane, he grew worried. Clearly something was wrong. At 12:49 p.m. Fernandez alerted all stations to stand by on emergency frequencies. The Hawaii Clipper was missing.

Since McCarty’s last reported position was only 300 miles off the Philippine coast, Pan Am expressed confidence that the Hawaii Clipper had landed safely in the water and would soon be found. When time passed and the flight failed to arrive in Manila, however, those hopes dimmed.

The U.S. Navy immediately organized one of the largest sea searches in its history. By midnight that same day, at least 14 ships from Manila’s 16th Naval District, including six submarines and three destroyers, left port. Additionally, the U.S. Army dispatched six long-range Martin B-10 bombers to survey the flying boat’s last known position, while four amphibious planes scoured the Philippine coast.

The Army transport Meigs, which had been only 103 miles away from where the Clipper presumably went down, immediately changed course. When the vessel arrived at the specified location at 10 that evening, it was raining and overcast. Ipak, Meigs’ crew started to search right away. By the time the destroyers arrived, the weather had cleared and the seas were exceptionally calm, with winds only 6 to 8 mph. In other words, conditions were ideal for finding debris from a plane crash.

The next day Meigs reported finding a large oil slick about 28 miles south-southeast of the Clipper’s last known position. Samples were taken and sent for analysis. On August 2, Pan Am’s China Clipper retraced the route of its missing sister ship. Nothing turned up. Finally the U.S. State Department asked the Japanese government for help. Tokyo redirected the liner Canberra Maru to Douglas Reef, but its crew found no sign of the missing aircraft there.

By August 5, when the search was suspended, more than 160,000 square miles had been covered. The samples from Meigs’ oil slick showed it was actually bilge water from a ship. The Hawaii Clipper had simply vanished.

Pan Am offered a reward for information, but none of the resulting leads panned out. One man claimed to have seen an airplane burst into flames and crash into the Samar Sea. Another man on Lahuy Island reported seeing a large airplane flying above the clouds on the afternoon of July 29. An aerial search of both areas came up empty-handed.

It had been a rough year for Pan Am. The Pacific Division lost half a million dollars in 1937. Add to that the loss in January 1938 of the Samoan Clipper—a Sikorsky S-42B flying boat that exploded in midair, killing everybody onboard, including chief pilot Ed Musick—and it seemed like Pan Am’s luck had run out. Iako je Samoan Clipper wasn’t carrying passengers at the time, Musick’s death came as a shock. And now the Hawaii Clipper had gone missing.

Martin’s M-130s had compiled an extraordinary safety record up to July 1938. A total of 228 flights had preceded the Hawaii Clipper’s across the Pacific, logging nearly 15 million passenger miles without serious incident. The missing aircraft had been thoroughly inspected prior to leaving Alameda and at Honolulu, Midway and Wake Island. Additionally, a Guam ground crew had hauled the flying boat out of the harbor for a detailed inspection, and everything appeared to be in fine working order.

The day before the crew departed Alameda, it had even participated in an emergency landing test, including an “abandon ship” drill that involved deploying a life raft. Captain Terletzky and his crew had reportedly been in “the best of spirits” during their stopover on Wake Island. Nothing seemed out of the ordinary.

Seventy-five years later, the question still remains: What happened? If the flying boat suffered a structural failure, wreckage would have been spread across the Pacific, and searchers should theoretically have spotted it. But the Clipper had simply vanished. Not a trace was ever found: no debris, no oil slick, nothing.

Since then, there’s been no shortage of theories about what happened to the Hawaii Clipper. Some have speculated Japanese fighters shot it down. Others say it must have been sabotaged. After all, at least three of the six passengers aboard could have been construed as having anti-Japanese sympathies. Still, there’s no evidence to support either theory.

Amelia Earhart’s disappearance in the Pacific the year before only added to the Clipper mystery. Retired U.S. Air Force pilot Joe Gervais was researching her disappearance when, in November 1964, he was shown the wreckage of a flying boat on the Pacific atoll of Truk. Believing it might be the Hawaii Clipper, Gervais forwarded photographs to Pan Am for examination. He was especially interested in stories that native guides told him about 15 Americans who had been executed by the Japanese before the war and buried under a concrete slab on a nearby island. But when Pan Am reviewed Gervais’ photos, the wreckage proved to be that of a Short Sunderland flying boat.

The story didn’t die there, however. In his 2000 book Fix on the Rising Sun: The Clipper Hi-jacking of 1938, Charles N. Hill wrote that he believed the Hawaii Clipper had been commandeered by two Japanese naval officers who had stowed away in the baggage compartment while the aircraft was at Guam. Then, armed with a revolver, they committed the world’s first skyjacking. Hill speculated that the officers had diverted the flying boat to a Japanese-occupied island and eventually to Truk, where the passengers and crew were executed.

Motivation for such a hijacking has varied depending on the source. Some believe the Japanese wanted to copy the M-130’s design for their own flying boat, while others think they actually wanted to get their hands on its engines. Hill’s theory is that the Japanese were determined to prevent Watson Choy from delivering $3 million in gold certificates to Chiang Kai-shek.

Guy Noffsinger, a former Navy intelligence officer who now heads up his own video production company in Washington, D.C., has spent the last 12 years trying to solve the Hawaii Clipper mystery. Noffsinger raised nearly $4,000 to fund a February 2012 trip to Micronesia, his second such journey to the region. Using ground-penetrating radar, he searched under several concrete slabs for the bodies of the Hawaii Clipper’s missing passengers and crew. Though he has yet to find evidence of their remains, Noffsinger is still “110 percent convinced” that they must have been murdered by the Japanese and buried near Truk.

We do know that Martin had been concerned about the safety of the M-130’s sponson struts, and recommended replacing them. John Leslie, Pan Am’s Pacific Division engineer, had tested the replacement struts two months before the Hawaii Clipper disappeared and concluded neither the old nor the new struts were safe. The negative publicity surrounding that issue was probably responsible for Trippe’s never doing business with Martin again.

After World War II there were rumors that American military officers had found the Hawaii Clipper painted in Japanese colors at Yokosuka naval base in Japan. A slightly different version of the story, often repeated by Trippe, was that magnetos bearing the same serial number as those from the Hawaii Clipper had been found on Japanese engines. There is no firm evidence for these claims.

It’s possible Captain Terletzky may have been a factor in the plane’s disappearance. A 1938 company newsletter commemorating Terletzky called him “one of Pan Am’s most distinguished flight commanders,” but his peers considered him an average pilot at best. Some had even refused to fly with him.

Horace Brock, who eventually became a Clipper pilot, had flown several times as Terletzky’s first officer. He claimed the Pan Am pilot had “confided his fear of flying” to him. Others maintained that Terletzky performed erratically in the cockpit and had infected his flight crews with his own anxiety. Ed Musick reportedly had serious misgivings about Terletzky’s competence, and once even tried to ground him.

The Air Safety Board of the Civil Aeronautics Authority convened an investigation into the Hawaii Clipper’s disappearance. The final report concluded:“A number of theories have been advanced as to the reason for the disappearance. The board considered each of them…however, [we]…cannot properly include a discussion of conjectures unsupported by facts. The Board, therefore respectfully submits…that additional evidence may yet be discovered and the investigation completed at that time.”

Despite the many elaborate theories surrounding the Hawaii Clipper’s disappearance, the most likely explanation is that the flying boat was a victim of mechanical or structural failure, poor weather, pilot error—or some combination of these factors. Though no wreckage was ever found, the Pacific is a big place. It can easily swallow a plane without any trace.

Pan Am’s Pacific operations continued to face financial difficulties, something the

Clipper’s disappearance did nothing to help. Even though the U.S. government would eventually grant a higher airmail subsidy to offset the company’s losses, there was not enough demand to make the route profitable. Trippe was deposed as CEO in 1939, and Pan Am’s M-130s were soon supplanted by Boeing’s larger B-314 flying boats. But World War II finally put an end to the Clippers’ short, glamorous career.

In 1979 Horace Brock noted in his book Flying the Oceans, “There is no question but that [Terletzky ran] into a very bad storm.” Perhaps the turbulent weather caused a catastrophic structural failure related to the sponson struts. It seems unlikely we’ll ever know for sure. But until someone comes up with conclusive evidence, it’s easier to assume the Hawaii Clipper succumbed to what Brock calls “a predictable tragedy” than to believe it was hijacked by renegade Japanese officers. Either way, the Hawaii Clipper mystery lives on.

John Geoghegan writes frequently about unusual aviation and science topics. His most recent contribution to Vazduhoplovna istorija was “Atomic Airships” (January 2013). He is the author of the 2013 book Operacija Oluja, about Japan’s I-400 submarines and their Seiran aircraft. For more on the Hawaii Clipper mystery, see lostclipper.com.

Prvobitno objavljeno u izdanju iz novembra 2013 Vazduhoplovna istorija. Za pretplatu kliknite ovdje.


Juan Trippe was an absolutely ruthless tactician and strategist. By the time the United States entered World War II, Trippe had already established Pan American Airways as America's most far-reaching international air carrier. Jockeying for air routes had become a desperate attempt by all of the U.S. air carriers to carve out their own 'exclusive' air routes literally criss-crossing the planet. But as the graphic below shows, by 1943 Pan American had begun to reign supreme in international air routes:


LIFE magazine's 'Who Will Fly Where' graphic from November 1st 1943 illustrates how United States air carriers were differentiating their international air routes. (Click for larger image)


Pan Am Ad from December 1944


Dateline Crossing Certificate, c. 1948
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LIFE magazine cutaway illustration of new Pan Am B-377 Stratocruiser from 1948. (Click for larger image)


1945 Boeing promotional photo of interior of lower lounge of Boeing 377 Stratocruiser


1950s 'El Presidente' service to Rio via B-377 Strato Clippers. Ideal for Banana Republic Jefes, Nazi Generals, and their CIA intermediaries of the era. (Click for larger image)


Lower lounge of a 1950s B-377 Strato Clipper


1956 LIFE magazine ad capitalizes on Mary Martin's recent Stage and Television triumphs as Peter Pan
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Pan American also touted it's adherence to U.S. Government flight regulations in several of its 1950s ads.
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'Europe is only a dream away' from 1956
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The opening salvo of Pan Am's 1956 Norman Rockwell ad series was this two full page ad in LIFE magazine.
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'My sketch book proves you can see more of EUROPE when you fly Pan American' from 1956 (Click for larger image)


'Eyes that see around the world'
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'The heart of London'
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'Mechanic John S. Keating'
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'Turkish Coffee Seller'
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'The thing to do with life is Live it!' from 1956 (Click for larger image)


Pan Am's fleet of Jet Clippers became overnight icons for international jet travel


The late 1950s ushered in Pan Am's jet era and its fleet or Boeing 707s and DC-8s


Los Angeles by Clipper circa 1959

I had the great privilege to fly on Pan American twice before this great American Icon ended service. Thankfully, both flights were international and of great distance. All the better to savor the rich experience even longer. Indeed, one of those long round trips was to fly to my fiancée to be married. And what better way to genuinely experience romance, adventure, and class. In my 23 years in the Marines and Air Force--and another 20 years of business life, there remains for me nothing that has ever compared to Pan American when measured in terms of pure class, professionalism--at svaki level of service, and a sense of air travel confidence--not to mention history. Northwest and JAL have come tantalizingly close as I've experienced them, but neither remotely compare to Pan Am. If America ever regains it's true character, one of my enduring hopes is that someone would pull out all the stops and revive this great airline--as long as it could be accomplished in the same top drawer manner at which it operated throughout its glorious history. A high bar, indeed, but the only acceptable way to revive such a great airline.

As long as I'm dreaming . . . what perfect irony if , once space travel truly becomes 'routine', that the PanAm logo as envisioned in Arthur Clarke's 2001, might eventually be realized and proven in fact. Throughout my life experience, few things have every truly osjetio genuinely incomparable. I can count them on the fingers of one hand.

Pan American World Airways was one of that handful of rare exceptions--perhaps the rarest of all.



1964's 'Pan Am adds the Priceless Extra of Experience'