Informacije

Vijetnamska historija - Historija


VIETNAM

U prvom milenijumu prije nove ere, kinesko se carstvo proširilo na današnji Vijetnam. Kinesko držanje na tom području zadržalo se, manje -više, otprilike sljedećih 1000 godina. Europljani su došli u regiju 1500 -ih godina, a početkom 19. stoljeća Francuska je bila neprikosnovena strana sila u Indokini. Francuska kolonijalna vlast se proširila, što je na kraju dovelo do narodnog nezadovoljstva. Godine 1954. Vijetnamci pod vodstvom Ho Chi Minha porazili su Francuze kod Dienbienphua. Primirjem je zemlja podijeljena na sjeverni, komunistički entitet i južni pod kraljem Bao Daijem koji je stvorio Francuz. Izbjeglice su se slile na jug i 1955. kralj je smijenjen zbog izbora održanih u oktobru te godine. Ubrzo nakon toga proglašena je Republika Vijetnam. Sukob između sjevera i juga ubrzo se proširio u močvaru koja je zahvatila Sjedinjene Države, neke od njihovih saveznika i susjedne dijelove jugoistočne Azije. Povlačenje američke vojske iz te zemlje 1975. dovelo je do toga da je cijela zemlja došla pod komunističku kontrolu, a takva je i danas. SAD su učinile određene pomake u uspostavljanju odnosa s Vijetnamom, ali napredak je spor, a sjećanja još uvijek relativno svježa na sukob koji je odnio toliko života tokom toliko godina.


Vijetnam

Naši urednici će pregledati ono što ste poslali i odlučiti da li želite da prepravite članak.

Vijetnam, država koja zauzima istočni dio kopna jugoistočne Azije.

Plemenski Vijeti koji naseljavaju deltu Crvene rijeke ušli su u pisanu istoriju kada ih je kineska ekspanzija prema jugu dosegla u 3. stoljeću prije nove ere. Od tog vremena nadalje dominantna tema vijetnamske povijesti bila je interakcija s Kinom, izvorom većine visoke kulture Vijetnama. Kao država koja plaća danak nakon što je 938. godine odbacila kinesku vlast, Vijetnam je kineskom caru poslao lakirano posuđe, životinjsku kožu, bjelokost i tropske proizvode, a zauzvrat je dobio svitke o filozofiji, administraciji i književnosti. Sinicka kultura duboko je prodrla u društvo, ali je više oblikovala aristokratiju i mandarinske porodice nego seljaštvo, koje je očuvalo osebujne običaje, vjerovanja, rječnik, životne navike i rodne odnose. Ugledajući se na kineske careve, vijetnamski kraljevi su ubirali danak od etničkih manjina na periferiji vijetnamske države i nazivali se carevima kada se nisu obratili kineskom dvoru. Iako kulturni i prostorni jaz između vijetnamskog dvora i najudaljenijih dijelova društva nije bio tako velik kao u Kini (Vijetnam je veličine kineske provincije sa uporedivim stanovništvom), kapacitet vijetnamske države smanjivao se s udaljenošću iz glavnog grada. Vatrostalni karakter seljačkih općina opasanih bambusom zabilježen je u klišeju: "Carev zapis staje pred seoskim vratima."

Vijetnam ima dugu istoriju povezivanja sa dominantnom civilizacijom i prilagođavanje ideja, institucija i tehnologije te civilizacije vijetnamskim svrhama. Ovaj obrazac pridruživanja i prilagođavanja već je bio očit u povijesnim odnosima Vijetnama s Kinom, a ponovo se pojavio kada su potomci mandarina odgovorili na izazov Zapada odbacivši tradiciju i postali komunisti u borbi protiv kolonijalizma. Uzorak je ponovno bio očit jer je animirao umjetničke pokrete 20. stoljeća koji su koristili zapadne oblike za promicanje društvene obnove, a od 1980-ih bio je pokretačka snaga iza prihvaćanja ekonomske liberalizacije i integracije Vijetnamske komunističke partije u svjetsku ekonomiju. Takva strateška apsorpcija i prilagođavanje pomogli su Vijetnamu da postane jedna od najmnogoljudnijih zemalja na svijetu, s jednom od najbrže rastućih tržišnih ekonomija.

Glavni grad, Hanoi, nalazi se na sjeveru, dok je najveći grad u državi, Ho Chi Minh City (bivši Saigon), na jugu. Vijetnam je sredinom 20. stoljeća doživio period produženog ratovanja i podjelu (1954–75), prvo vojnom, a kasnije i političkom, na Demokratsku Republiku Vijetnam, poznatiju kao Sjeverni Vijetnam, i Republiku Vijetnam, koja se obično naziva Južni Vijetnam. Nakon ponovnog ujedinjenja u aprilu 1975., Socijalistička Republika Vijetnam osnovana je u julu 1976. godine.

Sa površinom i konfiguracijom sličnom onoj u Norveškoj, Vijetnam se prostire na 1.650 km od sjevera prema jugu i na svom najužem dijelu je udaljen oko 50 km od istoka prema zapadu. Graniči s Kinom na sjeveru, Južnokineskim morem na istoku i jugu, Tajlandskim zaljevom (Sijamski zaljev) na jugozapadu i Kambodžom i Laosom na zapadu.


Uspostavljanje diplomatskih odnosa, 1950.

Diplomatski odnosi uspostavljeni su 17. februara 1950. godine, kada je Generalni konzulat u Saigonu uzdignut u status Legacije sa Edmundom A. Gullionom kao privremenim otpravnikom poslova.

Podizanje američke delegacije u status ambasade, 1952.

Legacija Sjedinjenih Država u Saigonu podignuta je na status ambasade 24. juna 1952. godine, kada je ambasador Donald R. Heath dobio potvrdu svog imenovanja od Senata Sjedinjenih Država. To je uslijedilo nakon zajedničke objave vlada Sjedinjenih Država i Vijetnama o tome 6. juna 1952. godine.

Diplomatski odnosi i odjel Sjever-Jug Vijetnama, 1955.

Kao rezultat Prvog rata u Indokini i Ženevske konferencije 1954. koja je označila njen kraj, teritorij države Vijetnam podijeljen je duž 17. paralele, s odvojenim režimima na sjeveru i jugu. Sjedinjene Države nisu bile potpisnice Ženevskog sporazuma pa nisu priznale Vladu Sjevernog Vijetnama. Sjedinjene Države su zadržale svoju ambasadu u Sajgonu i vodile diplomatske odnose isključivo s vladom Južnog Vijetnama, koja se 1955. godine reorganizirala u Republiku Vijetnam.

Prekinuti odnosi, 1975.

Sjedinjene Američke Države zatvorile su ambasadu u Sajgonu i evakuirale svo osoblje ambasade 29. aprila 1975. godine, neposredno prije predaje Južnog Vijetnama snagama Sjevernog Vijetnama.


Vijetnam - istorija i kultura

Postoje dokazi o životu u Vijetnamu koji datiraju od 20.000 godina prije nove ere, ali dinastija Hồng Bàng je bila prva dinastija i o njoj postoje mnoge legende. Autohtona kultura Đông Sơn koja je istaknuta na sjeveru, vrlo se razlikuje od naslijeđa Sa Huỳnh na jugu.

Istorija

Vijetnam je doživio mnogo ratova, počevši sve od 111. godine prije nove ere kada je kineska dinastija Han tvrdila da je ovo područje njegovo. Vijetnam je ostao pod kineskom vlašću 1.000 godina. 192. godine naše ere Champa je zauzela južni dio zemlje, koji je do 10. stoljeća potpuno podijeljen na pola. Ostaci ovih ljudi i danas se mogu vidjeti u Mome Sinu i Hoi Anu. Godine 930. n. E. Ngo Quyen pobijedio je Han u čuvenoj bitci na rijeci Bach Dang, nakon čega je zemlja došla pod vlast dinastije Ngô.

Tada je budizam počeo napredovati u Vijetnamu i kada je postao državna religija. Godine 979., dinastija Lê je preuzela kontrolu i počela se približavati Champi na jugu. Kad je posljednja linija muške krvi iscrpljena, dinastija Lý je nominirana za preuzimanje. Vijetnam je procvjetao, što je pokrenulo početak historijske zlatne ere.

Uslijedile su mnoge velike dinastije, sve dok kineski Ming nije došao na vlast 1407. 1428., poražena je od dinastije Lê, koja je kasnije izvela invaziju na Champu 1471. Od 16. stoljeća naovamo, nakon vladavine je bilo kontinuiranih građanskih nemira. iz dinastije Mac. Veći dio toga bio je rezultat rivalstva između porodica Trịnh i Nguyễn, pri čemu su Nguyễn na kraju osvojili moć. Oni su bili posljednji koji su vladali Vijetnamom, jer su Francuzi stigli i učinili teritorij dijelom Francuske Indokine.

Francuzi su promijenili mnoge stvari u Vijetnamu, utičući na kulturu, arhitekturu, hranu i obrazovni sistem. Takođe su razvili plantažnu ekonomiju. Ipak, počeo se pojavljivati ​​nacionalni politički pokret, a revolucionari, uključujući Ho Chi Minha, počeli su se boriti da povrate kontrolu nad zemljom.

Francuzi su ostali na vlasti do Drugog svjetskog rata kada su Japanci napali Indokinu. 1941. Ho Chi Minh se preselio na sjever i pokrenuo front Việt Minh. 19. avgusta 1945. godine Việt Minh je preuzeo kontrolu nad Hanojem, natjeravši Japance, a sjeverna polovina zemlje preimenovana je u Demokratsku Republiku Vijetnam (DRVN). Južna polovina (država Vijetnam) još je bila pod kontrolom dinastije Nguyễn i Francuza.

19. decembra 1946. počeo je prvi Indokineski rat između sjevera i juga. Godine 1954. Francuzi su ponovo poraženi, a Ženevska konferencija ostavila je Vijetnam podijeljenom zemljom, sa komunizmom na sjeveru i socijalizmom, uz podršku SAD -a, na jugu. Ho Chi Minh i njegova vlada počeli su se useljavati na jug, usput su ubijali zemljoposjednike i pobunjenike. To je dovelo do drugog rata u Indokini (poznatijeg kao Vijetnamski rat).

Vijetnamski rat se dogodio u Vijetnamu, Laosu i Kambodži između 1. novembra 1955. i 30. aprila 1975. godine, kada je Saigon konačno pao na sjever. Sovjetski Savez je pomogao komunističkom sjeveru u strateškom planiranju koje je dovelo do poraza juga. Dve godine nakon što su američke trupe otišle kao odgovor na Pariški sporazum iz 1973., jug je pao u ruke komunista i konačno je poražen 30. aprila 1975. Godinu dana kasnije, Saigon je preimenovan u Ho Chi Minh City. Vođa je umro u septembru 1969. godine, ali njegovo balzamirano tijelo može se vidjeti u mauzoleju Ho Chi Minh u Hanoju.

Kultura

Vijetnamska kultura fokusira se na humanost, harmoniju, porodicu i vrijednosti zajednice kroz muziku, umjetnost, ples i književnost. Postoje naznake francuskog i američkog utjecaja, ali nacionalni simboli poput zmajeva, kornjača, bambusa i lotosa strogo su vijetnamski i mogu se vidjeti na mnogim zgradama i budističkim hramovima u cijeloj zemlji.

Umjetnost u Vijetnamu bila je važna od davnina, pri čemu su ulogu imali kineski, taoizam, budizam i konfucijanizam. Keramika i kaligrafija vrlo su kineskog stila, kao i dosta stare arhitekture. Ples je poprimio drugu formu, oblikovali su ga 54 različite nacionalnosti u zemlji. Svaka grupa ima svoj tradicionalni nastup, iako se lavovski ples najčešće viđa na nacionalnim festivalima i proslavama. Muzika se takođe razlikuje u celom regionu, ali čini se da je klasika najstariji oblik. Kinezi su također uvelike utjecali na vijetnamsko kazalište, s mnogo predstava zasnovanih na kineskoj operi. Lutkarstvo na vodi autentično je u Vijetnamu i postoji od 10. stoljeća. Pozorište lutaka Thang Long Water u Hanoju najbolje je mjesto za vidjeti ovu jedinstvenu predstavu.


Vremenska crta neke istorije Vijetnama

Godine od prije mnogo godina označene su prije Krista ili prije nove ere. Pne znači "prije Krista", ali danas se izraz BCE ili "prije eri" obično koristi jer se ne radi o kršćanstvu.

Izraz AD se odnosi na datume nakon Hristovog rođenja i na sličan je način promijenjen u CE, ili „zajedničko doba“.

111. pne (BC): Vijetnamom vladaju Kinezi, koji su toj zemlji dali ime Annam, što je značilo 'Pacificirani jug'. Vijetnamski narod zamjerao je kineskoj vlasti i uvijek se pokušavao oduprijeti.

40 AD (CE): Kinezi su pogubili jednog od vođa vijetnamskog plemena. Njegova supruga i njena sestra, koje su postale poznate kao Trung Sisters, okupile su druge vođe plemena. Njihove vojske porazile su snage kineskog guvernera koji je pobjegao iz Vijetnama. Sestre Trung postale su kraljice svog dijela Vijetnama. Tri godine kasnije, Kinezi su porazili Vijetnamce. Sestre Trung, umjesto da se predaju, bacile su se u rijeku.

150 CE: Još jedna poznata i herojska žena, Trieu Au, povela je vojsku od 1000 ljudi u bitku protiv Kineza. Jahala je na slonu i nosila zlatne oklope. Njena vojska je poražena.

939 CE: Kinezi su poraženi i Vijetnam je sada bio nezavisan. Mnogo različitih porodica sada u različitim dijelovima Vijetnama.

Dio Citadele u Hueu. © kidcyber

1802: Nguyen Phuc Anh preuzeo je kontrolu nad Vijetnamom i proglasio se carem Gia Longom 1804 započeo je rad na svojoj palati i citadeli u Hueu na obali rijeke Parfem. Bio je sličan Zabranjenom gradu u kojem su živjeli kineski carevi. Većina toga ostaje i danas, a odjeljci se vraćaju onako kako su izgledali.

1859: Francuzi okupirali Sajgon

Gradska vijećnica Ho Chi Minh, lijep primjer francuske arhitekture koji se i dalje može vidjeti u Vijetnamu. © Getty Images

1885: Cijeli Vijetnam kolonizirali su Francuzi, zajedno s Kambodžom i Laosom na području koje je tada bilo poznato kao francuska Indokina.

1940: Tokom Drugog svjetskog rata Francuska je poražena od Njemačke. Njemački saveznik, Japan, okupirao je Vijetnam.

1945: Vijetnamci, predvođeni Ho Ši Minom, istjerali su Japance iz zemlje. Vijetnam je proglašen Demokratskom Republikom Vijetnam. Francuzi su se vratili, a trupe Ho Chi Minha nastavile su se boriti još 8 godina.

1954: Francuzi su poraženi i napustili Vijetnam. Konferencija svjetskih lidera odlučila je podijeliti Vijetnam na dvije zasebne države. Na sjeveru je bila Komunistička demokratska republika Vijetnam sa glavnim gradom u gradu Hanoju. Jug je bio nekomunistička Republika Vijetnam, sa prijestolnicom u gradu Saigonu.

Sada se zove Palata ponovnog ujedinjenja, ovdje je živio predsjednik Južnog Vijetnama. © Getty Images

Na jugu je vlada bila nepopularna i zamijenili su je vojni vladari (ljudi iz oružanih snaga). Ljudi na jugu koji su željeli da jug i sjever postanu jedna zemlja Vijetnama zvali su se Viet Cong. Borili su se protiv vojske juga. Sjeverni Vijetnamci podržali su Viet Cong u njihovoj borbi.

In 1965godine, Sjedinjene Američke Države poslale su trupe u južni Vijetnam kako bi pomogle u borbi protiv Vijeng Konga i sjevernih Vijetnamaca. Nekoliko sedmica kasnije, Australija i Novi Zeland su takođe poslale trupe u Južni Vijetnam. Na zapadu se to zvalo Vijetnamski rat, ali su ga Vijetnamci nazvali Američki rat.

Ho Chi Minh ostaje heroj Vijetnama: njegova vizija bila je ujedinjena zemlja pod jednom vladom. Fotografija © Getty Images

Američki avioni bacali su bombe i prskali otrovne hemikalije na velike površine zemlje, kako bi uništili šume koje su pružile utočište i hranu borcima u Vijetnamu. Bombe su bačene i na Sjeverni Vijetnam.

In 1970, australska vlada je odlučila dovesti australijske trupe kući iz Vijetnama. Posljednji australijski vojnici vratili su se kući 1972.

In 1972, Sjeverni Vijetnamci napali su Južni Vijetnam. U strahu da će se druge zemlje uključiti i proširiti rat, potpisan je sporazum o prekidu vatre između Sjevernog i Južnog Vijetnama, Viet Cong -a i SAD -a. Sve američke trupe otišle su iz zemlje do 1974. godine.

In 1975, nakon malo više borbi između sjevera i juga, rat je završio. Sever je pobedio i zemlja je postala poznata kao Socijalistička Republika Vijetnam. Ho Chi Minh, čovjek čija je vizija bila da Vijetnam treba ujediniti kao jednu državu kojom upravljaju Vijetnamci, a ne druge nacije, nije doživio ovo. On ostaje heroj vijetnamskog naroda.

Ukupno je 223.748 vojnika Južnog Vijetnama izgubilo živote, približno 4 miliona Vijetnamaca je poginulo ili povrijeđeno tokom rata, kako u Sjevernom tako iu Južnom Vijetnamu. Broj ubijenih Amerikanaca bio je 58.183, a hiljade ih je ranjeno. Broj ubijenih Australaca je 496, a ranjeno je 2398.

Vijetnamski narod i danas trpi štetne posljedice otrovnih kemikalija koje su raspršene po njihovoj zemlji tokom rata.

Pročitajte o Australijancima u Vijetnamskom ratu:

Pročitajte druge dječje stranice o Vijetnamu:

Ako koristite bilo koji dio ovoga u svom radu, potvrdite ovaj izvor u svojoj bibliografiji ovako:

Thomas, Ron & amp Sydenham, Shirley. 2020. Vijetnam: činjenice i istorija [Online] www.kidcyber.com.au

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  • SLUŽBENI NAZIV: Socijalistička Republika Vijetnam
  • OBLIK VLADE: Socijalistička republika
  • KAPITAL: Hanoj
  • STANOVNIŠTVO: 97.040.334
  • ZVANIČNI JEZIK: Vijetnamski
  • NOVAC: Dong
  • POVRŠINA: 127.123 kvadratnih milja (329.247 kvadratnih kilometara)
  • VELIKI PLANINSKI RASPON: Annam Cordiller
  • VEĆE REKE: Mekong, crvena, mama, parfem

GEOGRAFIJA

Vijetnam je duga, uska nacija u obliku slova s. Nalazi se u jugoistočnoj Aziji na istočnom rubu poluotoka poznatom kao Indokina. Njegovi susjedi uključuju Kinu na sjeveru i Laos i Kambodžu na zapadu. Južnokinesko more leži na istoku i jugu. Planine Annam Cordillera uzdižu se nad većinom zapadne strane Vijetnama, dok na istoku dominira obala od 1600 kilometara (1600 kilometara).

Na svom najužem mjestu, Vijetnam je širok samo 30 milja (48 kilometara). Dvije najveće vijetnamske rijeke, Mekong na jugu i Crvena na sjeveru, završavaju u Južnokineskom moru u ogromnim močvarnim ravnicama zvanim delte. Ove regije su dom za većinu stanovnika zemlje i pružaju plodno tlo za uzgoj pirinča i mnogih drugih usjeva.

Karta kreirana od strane National Geographic Maps

LJUDI & amp. KULTURA

Većina Vijetnamaca živi na selu, uglavnom u regijama riječnih delta na sjeveru i jugu. U posljednje vrijeme ljudi su se počeli seliti u glavne gradove Ho Chi Minh (bivši Saigon) i Hanoi.

Najpopularniji sportovi u Vijetnamu uključuju fudbal, stoni tenis, odbojku i borilačke vještine.

Vijetnamska hrana spoj je kineskog i tajlandskog stila i sadrži plodove mora i domaće voće i povrće.

Kao komunistička zemlja, Vijetnam nema zvaničnu religiju. Ali ljudi mogu slobodno klanjati ako to žele, a mnogi slijede ono što se naziva "tri učenja" konfucijanizma, taoizma i budizma.

NATURE

Vijetnamski planinski teren, šume, močvarna područja i duga obala sadrže mnogo različitih staništa koja podržavaju veliki broj divljih životinja. U Vijetnamu živi oko 270 vrsta sisavaca, 180 gmazova, 80 vodozemaca i 800 vrsta ptica.

U Vijetnamu živi mnogo rijetkih i neobičnih životinja, uključujući divovske somove, indokineske tigrove, antilope Saola i sumatranske nosoroge. Vlada je postavila 30 parkova i rezervata za zaštitu svojih životinja, ali je njihov opstanak pod znakom pitanja jer je veći dio njihovog staništa očišćen za drvnu građu ili za uzgoj usjeva.

Tropske šume nekad su pokrivale veći dio Vijetnama, ali u posljednjih nekoliko stotina godina sječa je smanjila šumski pokrivač na samo oko 19 posto. Vlada je pokrenula program ponovne sadnje u pokušaju obnove ovih šuma.

VLADA & EKONOMIJA pojačala

Vijetnam je socijalistička država kojom upravlja Komunistička partija Vijetnama. Predsjednik, kojeg bira Narodna skupština, je šef države i komandant oružanih snaga. Imenovani premijer vodi vladu.

Glavni izvoz Vijetnama uključuje sirovu naftu, plodove mora, pirinač, cipele, drvene proizvode, mašine, elektroniku, kafu i odjeću. Između 1975. i kasnih 1980 -ih, Vijetnam je trgovao uglavnom s drugim komunističkim zemljama, ali je od raspada Sovjetskog Saveza 1990. godine proširio trgovinu s drugim državama.

ISTORIJA

Prve civilizacije Vijetnama nastale su u dolini Crvene rijeke prije otprilike 5000 godina. Ova sjeverna plemena cvjetala su sve do 207. godine prije nove ere, kada je njihovu regiju osvojio kineski gospodar, koji je uspostavio kraljevstvo po imenu Nam Viet.

111. godine prije Krista Nam Viet postao je dio kineskog carstva, koje je vladalo sjeverom sve do 939. godine, kada je vijetnamski zapovjednik po imenu Ngo Quyen organizirao pobunu koja je istjerala Kineze. Kasnije dinastije preimenovale su državu u Dai Viet i postepeno proširile svoju teritoriju prema jugu. Do sredine 1500-ih, Dai Viet je bio podijeljen između suparničkih kraljevstava: Trinh na sjeveru i Nguyen na jugu.

Godine 1802., gospodar Nguyena, uz pomoć Francuza, pobijedio je Trinh i preimenovao državu u Vijetnam. Međutim, do 1890. godine Francuska je preuzela Vijetnam.


Danas u istoriji: Rođen 22. juna

George Vancouver, engleski navigator.

Erich Maria Remarque, njemački pisac (Sve tiho na zapadnom frontu).

Billy Wilder, filmski režiser (Sunset Boulevard, Stan).

Anne Morrow Lindbergh, autorica, supruga Charlesa Lindbergha (Pokloni s mora).

Joseph Papp, kazališni redatelj i producent, osnivač New York Public Theatrea i Shakespeare-in-the-Park.

Ed Bradley, televizijski novinar.


Dinastija Nguyen

Naši urednici će pregledati ono što ste poslali i odlučiti da li želite da prepravite članak.

Dinastija Nguyen, (1802–1945), posljednja vijetnamska dinastija, koju je osnovala i dominirala moćna porodica Nguyen. Porodica Nguyen postala je poznata u 16. stoljeću, kada je Vijetnam bio pod dinastijom Le (vidi Kasnije dinastija Le).

Nakon što je Mac Dang Dung uzurpirao vijetnamsko prijestolje 1527. godine, Nguyen Kim se borio za vraćanje cara Le 1533. godine, ostavljajući porodicu Mac na vlasti u sjevernom dijelu zemlje. Članovi porodice Nguyen djelovali su kao gradonačelnici palače slabim vladarima Le, ali sredinom 16. stoljeća ova je uloga prešla na porodicu Trinh (q.v.), a moć Nguyen postala je povezana s najjužnijim dijelovima vijetnamske države. Dugogodišnje rivalstvo između Nguyena i Trina postalo je otvoreni rat 1620. godine, a neprijateljstva su se povremeno nastavljala do 1673. Do tog datuma obje porodice su prihvatile de facto podjelu vijetnamske države.

Iako Kinezi nikada nisu dodijelili kraljevski status, Nguyen je vladao južnim Vijetnamom na suštinski nezavisan način. Tokom 17. i 18. vijeka Nguyen je ohrabrivao vijetnamska naseljavanja u zemlje koje su ranije okupirali Čami i Kambodžani. Veći dio naseljavanja Chama i kambodžanske zemlje, međutim, učinile su kineske izbjeglice bježeći od kolapsa dinastije Ming. Kinezi su se aktivno udvarali Nguyenima, kojima je očajnički bila potrebna radna snaga kako bi se oduprijeli napadu njihovih sjevernih rivala, Trinha, i proširili svoju teritorijalnu bazu prema jugu. Cho-lon, Bien Hoa i mnogi drugi gradovi u delti rijeke Mekong i duž južne obale osnovani su u to vrijeme na mjestima kineske emporije (phô).


Počinje Drugi rat u Indokini

7. maj 1954: Francuzi su pretrpjeli odlučujući poraz u bitci kod Dien Bien Pua.

21. jul 1954 .: Ženevski sporazum stvara prekid vatre za mirno povlačenje Francuza iz Vijetnama i pruža privremenu granicu između Sjevernog i Južnog Vijetnama na 17. paraleli. Sporazumi pozivaju na slobodne izbore 1956. Kambodža i Laos dobijaju svoju nezavisnost.

26. oktobar 1955: Južni Vijetnam se proglašava Vijetnamskom Republikom, sa novoizabranim Ngo Dinh Diemom za predsjednika.

1956: Predsjednik Diem odlučio se protiv izbora potrebnih u Ženevskom sporazumu jer bi sjever sigurno pobijedio.

8. jun 1956: Prva zvanična američka smrtna žrtva je tehnički narednik vazdušnih snaga Richard B. Fitzgibbon, Jr., ubio je drugi američki vazduhoplovac dok je razgovarao sa lokalnom djecom.

Juli 1959: Lideri Sjevernog Vijetnama donijeli su uredbu kojom se poziva na nastavak socijalističkih revolucija na sjeveru i jugu.

11. jula 1959: Dva vojna savjetnika SAD-a van dužnosti, bojnik Dale Buis i glavni narednik Chester Ovnand, poginuli su kada je gerilski napad na Bienhou pogodio njihovu trpezariju.


Sadržaj

Japanci su okupirali Vijetnam tokom Drugog svjetskog rata, ali su dozvolili Francuzima da ostanu i ostvare određeni utjecaj. Krajem rata, u kolovozu 1945., u Vijetnamu je stvoren vakuum snage. Iskorištavajući ovo, Việt Minh je pokrenuo "Avgustovsku revoluciju" širom zemlje kako bi zauzeo vladine urede. Car Bảo Đại abdicirao je 25. avgusta 1945. godine, čime je okončana dinastija Nguyễn. Dana 2. septembra 1945. na trgu Duc Anh Ba Đình, Ho Chi Minh, vođa organizacije Viet Minh, proglasio je nezavisnost Vijetnama pod novim imenom Demokratska Republika Vijetnam (DRVN) u govoru koji se pozvao na Deklaraciju Sjedinjenih Država Nezavisnost i Deklaracija prava čovjeka i građana u Francuskoj revoluciji. Ho je poslao nekoliko pisama američkoj vladi tražeći da se prizna kao vlada Vijetnama i nudeći prijateljstvo Americi, ali na nijedno nije odgovoreno. [2] [3]

Indokineski rat (1945–54) Urediti

Britanski zapovjednik u jugoistočnoj Aziji, lord Louis Mountbatten, poslao je 20.000 vojnika 20. indijske divizije da okupiraju Saigon pod vođstvom generala Douglasa Graceyja koji se iskrcao u južnom Vijetnamu 6. septembra 1945. razoružavajući Japance i uspostavljajući red. Morali su ponovo naoružati japanske ratne zarobljenike poznate kao Gremlin snage kako bi održavali red dok ne stigne više trupa. Britanci su se počeli povlačiti u decembru 1945., ali to nije bilo dovršeno do juna sljedeće godine. Posljednji britanski vojnici ubijeni su u Vijetnamu u junu 1946. Ukupno je ubijeno 40 britanskih i indijskih vojnika, a preko stotinu je ranjeno. Vijetnamske žrtve bile su 600. Pratile su ih francuske trupe koje su pokušavale ponovo uspostaviti svoju vlast. Na sjeveru je vojska Kuomintanga Chiang Kai-sheka ušla u Vijetnam iz Kine, također radi razoružavanja Japanaca, nakon čega su slijedile snage nekomunističkih vijetnamskih stranaka, poput Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng i Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội. U siječnju 1946. u Vijetnamu su održani prvi izbori za nacionalnu skupštinu (na kojima je pobijedio Viet Minh u središnjem i sjevernom Vijetnamu [4]), koji je izradio nacrt prvog ustava, ali situacija je i dalje bila nesigurna: Francuzi su silom pokušali povratiti vlast političari su formirali otcjepljujuću vladu Republike Kočinke (Nam Kỳ Quốc), dok su se nekomunističke i komunističke snage međusobno uključivale u sporadične bitke. Staljinisti su očistili trockiste. Vjerske sekte, poput Cao Đài i Hòa Hảo, i grupe otpora formirale su vlastite milicije. Prema uslovima Sporazuma između Francuske i Demokratske Republike Vijetnam od 6. marta 1946 .:

1. Francuska vlada priznaje Vijetnamsku Republiku kao slobodnu državu koja ima svoju vladu, svoj parlament, svoju vojsku i svoje finansije, koje čine dio Indokineske federacije i Francuske unije. Što se tiče ponovnog ujedinjenja tri "regiona Annamite" Cochinchina, Annam i Tonkin, francuska vlada se obavezala da će ratifikovati odluke koje je stanovništvo konsultovalo na referendumu. 2. Vijetnamska vlada se izjašnjava spremnom da prijateljski dočeka francusku vojsku kada, u skladu s međunarodnim sporazumima, rastereti kineske trupe. Dopunski sporazum, priložen ovom Preliminarnom sporazumu, utvrdit će načine na koje će se obavljati operacije pomoći. 3. Gore formulirane odredbe odmah stupaju na snagu. Odmah nakon razmjene potpisa, svaka od visokih strana ugovornica će poduzeti sve potrebne mjere da zaustavi neprijateljstva na terenu, da zadrži trupe na svojim položajima i da stvori povoljnu atmosferu neophodnu za trenutno otvaranje prijateljskih i iskrenih pregovora . Ovi pregovori će se posebno baviti: a. diplomatski odnosi Vijetnama sa stranim državama b. budući zakon Indokine c. Francuski interesi, ekonomski i kulturni, u Vijetnamu.

Sedište konferencije je bilo u Hanoju, Sajgonu ili Parizu. [ potrebno pojašnjenje ]

1947. izbio je potpuni rat između Vijetnama i Francuske. Shvativši da kolonijalizmu dolazi kraj u cijelom svijetu, Francuska je stvorila polunezavisnu Država Vijetnam, u okviru Francuske unije, sa Bảom Đạijem na čelu države. U međuvremenu, kako su komunisti pod Mao Cedungom preuzeli Kinu, Viet Minh je počeo primati vojnu pomoć od Kine. Osim nabavke materijala, kineski kadar vršio je pritisak i na Vijetnamsku komunističku partiju, tada pod prvim sekretarom Trường Chinhom, da oponaša njihovu marku revolucije, oslobađajući čistku “buržoaskih i feudalnih” elemenata iz redova Vijetnama, izvodeći nemilosrdnu i krvavu zemlju reformsku kampanju (Cải Cách Ruộng Đất) i osuđujući "buržoaske i feudalne" tendencije u umjetnosti i književnosti. Mnogi pravi patrioti i odani komunistički revolucionari u Vijetnamu trpili su zlostavljanje ili su čak pogubljeni tokom ovih pokreta. Mnogi drugi su se razočarali i napustili Vijetnam. Sjedinjene Države su se oštro protivile Hồ Chí Minhu. Pedesetih godina prošlog stoljeća vlada Bảo Đạija stekla je priznanje u Sjedinjenim Državama i Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu.

Snage Việt Minh značajno su porasle uz pomoć Kine i 1954. godine, pod komandom generala Võ Nguyêna Giápa, pokrenule su veliku opsadu francuskih baza u Điện Biên Phủu. Snage Việt Minh iznenadile su zapadne vojne stručnjake korištenjem primitivnih sredstava za premještanje artiljerijskih komada i opskrbe planinama koje okružuju Điện Biên Phủ, dajući im tako odlučujuću prednost. Dana 7. maja 1954. godine, francuske trupe u Điện Biên Phủu, pod vodstvom Christiana de Castriesa, predale su se Vijetnamu, a u srpnju 1954. potpisan je Ženevski sporazum između Francuske i Viet-Minha, čime je Francuzima otvoren put za napuštanje Vijetnama .

Vijetnamski rat (1954–75) - uređivanje Juga

Ženevska konferencija 1954. okončala je kolonijalno prisustvo Francuske u Vijetnamu i podijelila zemlju na dvije države u 17. paraleli do ujedinjenja na osnovu slobodnih izbora pod međunarodnom kontrolom. Ngô Đình Diệm, a former mandarin with a strong Catholic and Confucian background, was selected as Premier of the State of Vietnam by Bảo Đại. While Diệm was trying to settle the differences between the various armed militias in the South, Bảo Đại was persuaded to reduce his power. Diệm created a referendum in 1955 to depose Bảo Đại and declared himself president of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). The Republic of Vietnam (RVN) was proclaimed in Saigon on October 26, 1955. The United States began to provide military and economic aid to the RVN, training RVN personnel, and sending U.S. advisors to assist in building the infrastructure for the new government.

Also in 1954, Viet Minh forces took over North Vietnam according to the Geneva Accord. One million North Vietnamese civilians emigrated to South Vietnam to avoid persecution from the imminent Communist regime. At the same time, Viet Minh armed forces from South Vietnam were also moving to North Vietnam, as dictated by the Geneva Accord. However, some high-ranking Viet Minh cadres secretly remained in the South to follow the local situation closely, and created a communist insurgency against the Southern government if necessary. The most important figure among those was Lê Duẩn.

The Geneva Accord had promised elections to determine the government for a unified Vietnam. Neither the United States government nor Ngô Đình Diệm's State of Vietnam signed anything at the 1954 Geneva Conference. With respect to the question of reunification, the non-communist Vietnamese delegation objected strenuously to any division of Vietnam, but lost out when the French accepted the proposal of Viet Minh delegate Phạm Văn Đồng, [5] who proposed that Vietnam eventually be united by elections under the supervision of "local commissions". [6] The United States countered with what became known as the "American Plan", with the support of South Vietnam and the United Kingdom. [7] It provided for unification elections under the supervision of the United Nations, but was rejected by the Soviet delegation. [7]

Diệm took strong measures to secure South Vietnam from perceived internal threats, especially from the Viet Cong. He eliminated all private militias from the Bình Xuyên Party and the Cao Đài and Hòa Hảo religious sects. In October 1955, he deposed Bảo Đại and proclaimed himself president of the newly established the Republic of Vietnam, after rigging a referendum. [8] [9] He repressed political opposition, arresting the famous writer Nguyễn Tường Tam, who committed suicide while awaiting trial in jail. [10] Diệm also acted aggressively to remove Communist agents still remaining in the South. He formed the Cần Lao Nhân Vị Party, mixing Individualist philosophy with republican and capitalist elements, as well as being anti-Communist and pro-Catholic. Another controversial policy was the Strategic Hamlet Program, which aimed to build fortified villages to remove and lock out Communists. However, it was in some ways ineffective as many covert communists were already part of the population and visually indistinguishable. It became unpopular as it limited the villagers' freedom and altered their traditional way of life.

Although Ngô Đình Diệm personally was respected for his nationalism, political stability and policies triggering rapid economic growth, he ran a nepotistic and authoritarian government. Elections were routinely rigged and Diệm favored of minority Roman Catholics on many issues, believing that Catholics were "more trustworthy", more anti-communist and more impermeable to Viet Cong infiltration. His religious policies sparked protests from the Buddhist community after demonstrators were killed on Vesak, Buddha's birthday, in 1963 when they were protesting a ban on the Buddhist flag. This incident sparked mass protests calling for religious equality. The most famous case was of Venerable Thích Quảng Đức, who burned himself to death to protest. The images of this event made worldwide headlines and brought extreme embarrassment for Diệm. The tension was not resolved, and on August 21, the ARVN Special Forces loyal to his brother and chief adviser Ngô Đình Nhu and commanded by Lê Quang Tung raided Buddhist pagodas across the country, leaving a death toll estimated to range into the hundreds. In the United States, the Kennedy administration became worried that the problems of Diệm's government were undermining the US's anti-Communist effort in Southeast Asia, and of Diệm's increasing resistance and non-cooperation with the American government. On November 1, 1963, with the planning and backing of the CIA and the Kennedy administration, [11] South Vietnamese generals led by Dương Văn Minh engineered a coup d'état and overthrew Ngô Đình Diệm, killing both him and his brother Nhu. (see also Ngô Đình Cẩn)

Between 1963 and 1965, South Vietnam was extremely unstable as no government could keep power for long. There were more coups, often more than one every year. The Communist-run Viet Cong expanded their operation and scored some significant military victories during this period. In 1965, US President Lyndon Johnson sent troops to South Vietnam to secure the country and started to bomb North Vietnam, assuming that if South Vietnam fell to the Communists, other countries in the Southeast Asia would follow, in accordance with the domino theory. Other US allies, such as Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Thailand, the Philippines, and Taiwan also sent troops to South Vietnam. Although the American-led troops succeeded in containing the advance of Communist forces, the presence of foreign troops, the widespread bombing over all of Vietnam, and the social vices that mushroomed around US bases upset the sense of national pride among many Vietnamese, North and South, causing some to become sympathetic to North Vietnam and the Viet Cong. In 1965, Air Marshal Nguyễn Cao Kỳ and General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu took power in a coup, and presided over a stable junta, and promised to hold elections under US pressure. In 1967, South Vietnam managed to conduct a National Assembly and Presidential election with Lt. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu being elected to the Presidency, bringing the government to some level of stability.

Vietnam War (1954–75) – the North Edit

Between 1953 and 1956, the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including "rent reduction" and "land reform", which resulted in significant political oppression. During the land reform, testimony from North Vietnamese witnesses suggested a ratio of one execution for every 160 village residents, which extrapolated nationwide would indicate nearly 100,000 executions. Because the campaign was concentrated mainly in the Red River Delta area, a lower estimate of 50,000 executions became widely accepted by scholars at the time. [12] [13] [14] [15] However, declassified documents from the Vietnamese and Hungarian archives indicate that the number of executions was much lower than reported at the time, although likely greater than 13,500. [16] A Northern democratic literary movement called Nhân văn-Giai phẩm (from the names of the two magazines which started the movement, based in Hanoi) developed, which attempted to encourage the democratization of the North and the free expression of thought. Intellectuals were thus lured into criticizing the leadership so they could be arrested later, and many were sent to hard labor camps (Gulags), following the model of Mao Tse-tung's Hundred Flowers campaign in China. [17] Freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and other basic civilian freedoms were soon revoked after the government's attempt of destroying the literary movement. A puritan personality cult was also established around Ho Chi Minh, later extended nationwide after the Communist reunification of the Vietnam.

During this period, North Vietnam was a Communist state with a centralized command economy, an extensive security apparatus to carry out dictatorship of the proletariat, a powerful propaganda machine that effectively rallied the people for the Party's causes, a superb intelligence system that infiltrated South Vietnam (spies such as Phạm Ngọc Thảo climbed to high military government positions), and a severe suppression of political opposition. Even some decorated veterans and famed Communist cadres, such as Trần Đức Thảo, Nguyễn Hữu Đang, Trần Dần, Hoàng Minh Chính, were persecuted during the late 1950s Nhân Văn Giai Phẩm events and the 1960s Trial Against the Anti-Party Revisionists (Vụ Án Xét Lại Chống Đảng) for speaking their opinions. Nevertheless, this iron grip, together with consistent support from the Soviet Union and China, gave North Vietnam a militaristic advantage over South Vietnam. North Vietnamese leadership also had a steely determination to fight, even when facing massive casualties and destruction at their end. The young North Vietnamese were idealistically and innocently patriotic, ready to give the ultimate sacrifice for the "liberation of the South" and the "unification of the motherland".

In 1960, at the Third Party Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party, renamed the Labor Party since 1951, Lê Duẩn arrived from the South and strongly advocated the use of revolutionary warfare to topple Diệm's government, unifying the country, and establish communism nationwide. Despite some elements in the Party opposing the use of force, Lê Duẩn won the seat of First Secretary of the Party. As Hồ Chí Minh was aging, Lê Duẩn virtually took the helm of war from him. The first step of his war plan was coordinating a rural uprising in the South (Đồng Khởi) and forming the Viet Cong or National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) toward the end of 1960. The figurehead leader of the Viet Cong was Nguyễn Hữu Thọ, a South Vietnamese lawyer, but the true leadership was the Communist Party hierarchy in South Vietnam. Arms, supplies, and troops came from North Vietnam into South Vietnam via a system of trails, named the Ho Chi Minh trail, that branched into Laos and Cambodia before entering South Vietnam. At first, most foreign aid for North Vietnam came from China, as Lê Duẩn distanced Vietnam from the "revisionist" policy of the Soviet Union under Nikita Khrushchev. However, under Leonid Brezhnev, the Soviet Union picked up the pace of aid and provided North Vietnam with heavy weapons, such as T-54 tanks, artillery, MIG fighter planes, surface-to-air missiles etc.

The Tet Offensive and the end of the war Edit

In 1968, the Viet Cong launched a massive and surprise Tết Offensive (known in South Vietnam as "Biến Cố Tết Mậu Thân" or in the North as "Cuộc Tổng Tấn Công và Nổi Dậy Tết Mậu Thân"), attacking almost all major cities in South Vietnam over the Vietnamese New Year (Tết). The Viet Cong and North Vietnamese captured the city of Huế, after which many mass graves were found. Many of the executed victims had relations with the South Vietnamese government or the US, or part of social groups that were considered enemies to the Viet Cong, like Catholics, business owners and intellectuals (Thảm Sát Tết Mậu Thân). Over the course of the year the Viet Cong forces were pushed out of all cities in South Vietnam and nearly decimated. In subsequent major offensives in later years, North Vietnamese regulars with artillery and tanks took over the fighting. In the months following the Tet Offensive, an American unit massacred civilian villagers, suspected to be sheltering Viet Cong guerillas, in the hamlet of My Lai in Central Vietnam, causing an uproar in protest around the world.

In 1969, Hồ Chí Minh died, leaving wishes that his body be cremated. However, the Communist Party embalmed his body for public display and built the Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum on Ba Đình Square in Hà Nội, in the style of Lenin's Mausoleum in Moscow.

Although the Tết Offensive was a catastrophic military defeat for the Việt Cộng, it was a stunning political victory as it led many Americans to view the war as unwinnable. U.S. President Richard Nixon entered office with a pledge to end the war "with honor." He normalized US relations with China in 1972 and entered into détente with the USSR. Nixon thus forged a new strategy to deal with the Communist Bloc, taking advantage of the rift between China and the Soviet Union. A costly war in Vietnam begun to appear less effective for the cause of Communist containment. Nixon proposed "Vietnamization" of the war, with South Vietnamese troops taking charge of the fighting, yet still receiving American aid and, if necessary, air and naval support. The new strategy started to show some effects: in 1970, troops from the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) successfully conducted raids against North Vietnamese bases in Cambodia (Cambodian Campaign) in 1971, the ARVN made an incursion into Southern Laos to cut off the Ho Chi Minh trail in Operation Lam Son 719, but the operation failed as most high positions captured by ARVN forces were recaptured by North Vietnamese artillery in 1972, the ARVN successfully held the town of An Lộc against massive attacks from North Vietnamese regulars and recaptured the town of Quảng Trị near the demilitarised zone (DMZ) in the center of the country during the Easter Offensive.

At the same time, Nixon was pressing both Hanoi and Saigon to sign the Paris Peace Agreement of 1973, for American military forces to withdraw from Vietnam. The pressure on Hanoi materialized with the Christmas Bombings in 1972. In South Vietnam, Nguyễn Văn Thiệu vocally opposed any accord with the Communists, but was threatened with withdrawal of American aid.

Despite the peace treaty, the North violated the treaty and continued the war as had been envisioned by Lê Duẩn and the South still tried to recapture lost territories. In the U.S., Nixon resigned after the Watergate scandal. South Vietnam was seen as losing a strong backer. Under U.S. President Gerald Ford, the Democratic-controlled Congress became less willing to provide military support to South Vietnam.

In 1974, South Vietnam also fought and lost the Battle of Hoàng Sa, in defending the islands against the invading Chinese over the control of the Paracel Islands in the South China Sea. Neither North Vietnam nor the U.S. were involved.

In early 1975, North Vietnamese military led by General Văn Tiến Dũng launched a massive attack against the Central Highland province of Buôn Mê Thuột. South Vietnamese troops had anticipated attack against the neighboring province of Pleiku, and were caught off guard. President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu ordered the moving of all troops from the Central Highland to the coastal areas, as with shrinking American aid, South Vietnamese forces could not afford to spread too thin. However, due to lack of experience and logistics for such a large troop movement in such a short time, the whole South Vietnamese 2nd Corps got bogged down on narrow mountain roads, flooded with thousands of civilian refugees, and was decimated by ambushes along the way. The South Vietnamese First Corps near the DMZ was cut off, received conflicting orders from Saigon on whether to fight or to retreat, and eventually collapsed. Many civilians tried to flee to Saigon via land, air, and sea routes, suffering massive casualties along the way. In early April 1975, South Vietnam set up a last-ditch defense line at Xuân Lộc, under commander Lê Minh Đảo. North Vietnamese troops failed to penetrate the line and had to make a detour, which the South Vietnamese failed to stop due to lack of troops. President Nguyễn văn Thiệu resigned. Power fell to Dương Văn Minh.

Dương Văn Minh had led the coup against Diệm in 1963. By the mid-1970s, he had leaned toward the "Third Party" (Thành Phần Thứ Ba), South Vietnamese elites who favored dialogues and cooperation with the North. Communist infiltrators in the South tried to work out political deals to let Dương Văn Minh ascend to the Presidency, with the hope that he would prevent a last stand, a destructive battle for Saigon. Although many South Vietnamese units were ready to defend Saigon, and the ARVN 4th Corps was still intact in the Mekong Delta, Dương Văn Minh ordered a surrender on April 30, 1975, sparing Saigon from destruction. Nevertheless, the reputation of the North Vietnamese army towards perceived traitors preceded them, and hundreds of thousands of South Vietnamese fled the country by all means: airplanes, helicopters, ships, fishing boats, and barges. Most were picked up by the U.S. Seventh Fleet in the South China Sea or landed in Thailand. The seaborne refugees came to be known as "boat people". In a famous case, a South Vietnamese pilot, with his wife and children aboard a small Cessna plane, landed safely without a tailhook on the aircraft carrier USS Midway. This mass exodus of (mostly South) Vietnamese political refugees continued into the 1980s as refugees fled from persecution, political oppression and economic collapse caused by the new Communist regime.

In 1976, Vietnam was officially unified and renamed Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRVN), with its capital in Hà Nội. The Vietnamese Communist Party dropped its front name "Labor Party" and changed the title of First Secretary, a term used by China, to General Secretary, used by the Soviet Union, with Lê Duẩn as general secretary. The Viet Cong was dissolved. The Party emphasized development of heavy industry and collectivization of agriculture. Over the next few years, private enterprises were seized by the government and their owners were often sent to the New Economic Zones—a communist euphemism for a thick jungle—to clear land. The farmers were coerced into state-controlled cooperatives. Transportation of food and goods between provinces was deemed illegal except by the government. Within a short period of time, Vietnam was hit with severe shortages of food and basic necessities. The Mekong Delta, once a world-class rice-producing area, was threatened with famine. During the mid-1980s, inflation reached triple figures.

In foreign relations, the SRVN became increasingly aligned with the Soviet Union by both joining the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), and signing a Friendship Pact, which was in fact a military alliance. Tension between Vietnam and China mounted together with China's rivalry with the Soviet Union and conflict erupted with Cambodia, China's ally. Vietnam was also subject to trade embargoes by the U.S. and its allies.

The SRVN government implemented a Stalinist dictatorship of the proletariat in the South as they had done in the North. The security apparatus network (Công An: literally "Public Security", a communist term for the security apparatus) controlled every aspect of people's lives. Censorship was strict and ultra-conservative, with most pre-1975 works in the fields of music, art, and literature being banned. All religions had to be re-organized into state-controlled churches. Any negative comments toward the Party, the government, Uncle Ho, or anything related to Communism might earn the person the tag of Phản Động (Reactionary), with consequences ranging from being harassed by police, expelled from school or workplace, to being sent to prison. Nevertheless, the Communist authorities failed to suppress the black market, where food, consumer goods, and banned literature could be bought at high prices. The security apparatus also failed to stop a nationwide clandestine network of people trying to escape the country. In many cases, the security officers of entire districts were bribed and even got involved in organizing the escape schemes.

Refugees Edit

These living conditions resulted in the exodus of over a million Vietnamese people secretly escaping the country either by sea or overland through Cambodia. For the people fleeing by sea, their wooden boats were often not seaworthy, were packed with people like sardines, and lacked sufficient food and water. Many were caught or shot at by the Vietnamese coast guards, and many perished at sea due to boats sinking, capsizing in storms, starvation and thirst. Another major threat was the pirates in the Gulf of Thailand, who viciously robbed, raped, and murdered the boat people. In many cases, they massacred the whole boat. Sometimes the women were raped for days before being sold into prostitution. The people who crossed Cambodia faced equal dangers with mine fields, and the Khmer Rouge and Khmer Serei guerillas, who also robbed, raped, and killed the refugees. Some were successful in fleeing the region and landed in numbers in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Hong Kong, only to wind up in United Nations refugee camps. Some famous camps were Bidong in Malaysia, Galang in Indonesia, Bataan in the Philippines and Songkla in Thailand. Some managed to travel as far as northern Australia in crowded, open boats. All foreign missionaries were expelled from Vietnam, including the most famous Salesian priest, Servant of God Andrej Majcen (1907–1999) from Yugoslavia (now Slovenia).

While most refugees were resettled to other countries within five years, others languished in these camps for over a decade. In the 1990s, refugees who could not find asylum were deported back to Vietnam. Communities of Vietnamese refugees arrived in the US, Canada, Australia, France, West Germany, and the UK. The refugees often sent relief packages packed with necessities, such as medicines and sanitary goods to their relatives in Vietnam to help them survive. Very few would send money as it would be exchanged far below market rates by the Vietnamese government.

Cambodia and conflict with China Edit

Despite the defeat of South Vietnam, there was no serious demobilization of the Vietnamese People's Army, which remained one of Asia's largest militaries at over one million troops, or sign that warfare was coming to an end anytime soon. Not only were Vietnamese soldiers highly experienced from decades of fighting, but also had acquired a large cache of captured US and South Vietnamese armaments. Vietnam soon found itself drawn into conflict with Cambodia, which had been ruled by the communist Khmer Rouge since 1975. In addition to this, Sino-Vietnamese relations deteriorated quite rapidly following Mao Zedong's death in 1976 due to Hanoi's unremitting loyalty to the Soviet Union, which was at odds with China during the 1970s. By 1978, most trade and material assistance programs between the two countries had ceased and Vietnam forbade Chinese ships from docking at its ports. As the Khmer Rouge were allies of Beijing, this further aggravated tensions and following border skirmishes, the VPA launched a full-scale armed invasion of Cambodia during the first week of 1979. This had the effect however of causing conflict with China and during a visit to the US in February, Deng Xiaoping stated that "It may be necessary to teach Vietnam a lesson." A large Chinese force invaded the Vietnamese border area, but with China still suffering the effects of the Cultural Revolution, the People's Liberation Army was seriously deficient in training, equipment, and communications. Over 30,000 Chinese troops were killed or wounded in three weeks of battling Vietnamese border guards and militia (the VPA was then in Cambodia and had no involvement in the war). Shortly afterwards, they withdrew with Beijing proclaiming that the aforementioned "lesson" had been taught as in any case, the fighting caused extensive destruction to Vietnam's infrastructure along the border.

In Cambodia, The Vietnamese invasion had stopped the genocide of millions of Cambodians by the Khmer Rouge. [18] The pro-Vietnamese People's Republic of Kampuchea was created with Heng Samrin as chairman in January 1979. Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge allied with non-Communist guerrilla forces led by Norodom Sihanouk and Son Sann to fight against the Vietnamese forces and the new Phnom Penh regime. Some high-ranking officials of the Heng Samrin regime in the early 1980s resisted Vietnamese control, resulting in a purge that removed Pen Sovan, prime minister and general secretary of the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party. The war lasted until 1989 when Vietnam withdrew its troops and handed the administration of Cambodia to the United Nations. [19]

Government and economy 1975–1991 Edit

Vietnam's third Constitution, based on that of the USSR, was written in 1980. The Communist Party was stated by the Constitution to be the only party to represent the people and to lead the country. In 1980, cosmonaut Phạm Tuân became the first Vietnamese and the first Asian to go into space, traveling on the Soviet Soyuz 37 to service the Salyut 6 space station. During the early 1980s, a number of overseas Vietnamese organizations were created with the aim of overthrowing the Vietnamese Communist government through armed struggle. Most groups attempted to infiltrate Vietnam but eventually were eliminated by Vietnamese security and armed forces.

Overall, the first decade after reunification was not a happy time for the country. Nonstop warfare consumed large amounts of Vietnam's resources, both financially and by depleting the labor force of young men. The country remained internationally isolated, having little contact with nations outside COMECON members, and faced with a huge, hostile neighbor to the north. Despite repeated overtures to the United States, attempts to reestablish diplomatic relation were hampered by the question of missing US soldiers from the war and President Ronald Reagan's vocal hostility towards the country's principle benefactor in Moscow. In a 1981 interview with American journalist Stanley Karnow, Premier Phạm Văn Đồng remarked "Yes, we defeated the United States, but now we are a poor undeveloped nation and barely have enough to eat. Hence the saying that waging war is easy, but running a country is hard."

Compounding all this was the complete failure of the Five-Year Plan adopted in 1976, as Vietnam remained one of the world's poorest countries with a per-capita GDP of less than US$300 and almost totally dependent on Soviet aid, which reached as much as US$3 billion a year by 1982. Moscow faced mounting pressure from its Warsaw Pact allies to reduce outlays to Vietnam. Soviet-Vietnamese relations were also harmed by the former's wishes to have greater involvement in Vietnam's economic development and increased access to military facilities. In 1982, the VCP held its 5th National Congress in which General Secretary Lê Duẩn stated that "The Party wishes sternly to criticize itself." and "Our nation's manifold difficulties, while aggravated by outside circumstances that could not be helped, are nonetheless worsened by the various errors and shortcoming of officials." Le also expressed his dismay at the average age of the party leadership, noting that there was only one person on the Central Committee under 60.

That year, a general purge of the party ranks began to weed out elderly and inefficient cadres and replace them with younger men. Võ Văn Kiệt, aged 59, was promoted to head of the State Planning Commission, and 62-year-old Foreign Minister Nguyễn Cơ Thạch was elevated to Politburo membership. More surprising was the removal of General Võ Nguyên Giáp, considered a national hero, from the Politburo (it was later speculated that he was removed by political rivals) This rejuvenation campaign was nonetheless diminished by the fact that the country's three most powerful individuals, Lê Duẩn, Phạm Văn Đồng, and President Trường Chinh, showed no sign of stepping down any time soon despite their combined age of 226 and clearly failing health (all of them visited Moscow for medical treatment during 1982). Although they saw the need for reforms and fighting corruption, such change was beyond their ability by this point.

The Second Five Year Plan was adopted for 1981 and showed a clear move towards more market reforms and away from the rigid central planning of the 1976–80 scheme. Real change would not begin until the second half of the decade when Lê Duẩn died in July 1986, succeeded as general secretary by Trường Chinh. However, Trường was expelled only five months later and replaced by Nguyễn Văn Linh, eight years his junior. Phạm Văn Đồng retired as premier in 1987. Upon their accession, the country's new leadership denounced their geriatric predecessors for "utterly failing to improve the people's living standards, check corruption, or instill a more flexible, non-dogmatic outlook on life." [ potreban citat ]

During the late 80s, Vietnam began tentative market reforms along the model then being adopted by China. The basis for these experiments were in the south which had a stronger tradition of trade and commerce. The perestroika policies of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev were also a source of motivation. Although communist governments in Eastern Europe were collapsing in 1989, Vietnam was kept comparatively isolated from these events due to its poverty and geographical distance and a few small pro-democracy protests in Hanoi were quickly suppressed. The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a thaw in the long hostile Sino-Vietnamese relations as the two nations embraced each other as some of the only surviving communist states.

Soon after the Paris Agreement on Cambodia resolved the conflict in October 1991, however, Vietnam established or reestablished diplomatic and economic relations with most of Western Europe, and several Asian countries. In February 1994, the United States lifted its economic embargo against Vietnam, and in June 1995, the United States and Vietnam normalized relations. In June 2005, a high-level Vietnamese delegation, led by Prime Minister Phan Văn Khải, visited the United States and met with their U.S. counterparts, including President George W. Bush. This was the first such visit in 30 years. Although the visit mostly went well, a few embarrassing events occurred such as the White House's official website (www.whitehouse.gov) accidentally depicting the flag of South Vietnam in its official announcement of the visit. This provoked dismay and hostile comments from the Vietnamese government until the White House officially apologized and corrected the webpage. In addition, a crowd of hostile protesters gathered outside the White House during Phan's meeting with President Bush denouncing the Vietnamese Communist Party and waving South Vietnamese flags.

In late 2005, a three-person collective leadership was responsible for governing Vietnam. This triumvirate consisted of the VCP general secretary (Nông Đức Mạnh, 22 April 2001 – 19 January 2011), the prime minister (Phan Văn Khải, 25 September 1997 – 27 June 2006), and the president (Trần Đức Lương, 24 September 1997 – 26 June 2006). General Secretary Manh headed up not only the VCP but also the 15-member Politburo. President Luong was chief of state, and Prime Minister Khai was head of government. The leadership was promoting a "socialist-oriented market economy" and friendly relations with the European Union, Russia, and the United States. Although the leadership was presiding over a period of rapid economic growth, official corruption and a widening gap between urban wealth and rural poverty remained stubborn problems that were eroding the VCP's authority. In 2006, Vietnam hosted the APEC Annual Summit and became the 150th member state of WTO (World Trade Organization) on 11 January 2007, after concluding bilateral agreements with the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic in order to qualify for membership. [20] In the summer of 2011, spontaneous mass demonstrations erupted in Hanoi and Saigon, where thousands of Vietnamese protested China's increasing military aggression and encroachment into Vietnamese waters and territories in the South China Sea. [21] The authorities moved in to break up the protests after an official complaint was lodged by the Chinese embassy in Hanoi, as the VCP's official policy since the 1990s has been one of good relations with Beijing and there was no desire on their part to disrupt the status quo. [22]

In 2013, a baby girl named Nguyen Thi Thuy Dung was born and was officially designated Vietnam's official 90 millionth citizen. [23]


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